УДК 699.86

Usage of thermal insulation in construction

Ахмади Алина – магистрант Международной образовательной корпорации (Республика Казахстан, Алматы).

Ибрагимов Алиакбар – ассистент-профессор Международной образовательной корпорации (Республика Казахстан, Алматы).

Abstract: By increasing thermal efficiency and enhancing insulation, buildings can use less energy. This study can help with the efficient construction of insulation materials as well as legal management for indoor air quality.

Materials with varying properties are used in the construction process. The materials used in the design should guarantee the highest level of performance and durability. It lowers energy costs and improves building structure toughness.

Today's construction industry uses a variety of thermal insulation materials. To achieve a building envelope with a sufficiently low thermal transmittance, conventional materials like glass wool, rock wool, expanded polystyrene, and extruded polystyrene need to be thick. Old buildings must consider several factors, including the restricted space and protected façade features, when undergoing energy retrofitting. Soon, new high performance thermal insulation materials and components open new design options for engineers and architects who want to create energy-efficient structures.

In a case study of a new residential apartment and an old university building that is rebuilt in 2023, five different thermal insulation systems or materials: rock wool, fiberglass, foam glass, hollow bricks, and Aerogel Space Loft are evaluated and contrasted with one another in terms of their ability to provide thermal protection and overall energy performance. The systems are ranked significantly based on their cost, time, thermal conductivity, fuel efficiency, fire resistance, and diffusion resistance during construction.

Аннотация: Потребление энергии в зданиях может быть снижено за счет повышения теплоэффективности за счет улучшения теплоизоляции.

Строительная система состоит из материалов с разными свойствами. Использование материалов в конструкции должно обеспечивать максимальную ее производительность и долговечность. Это снижает энергозатраты и повышает долговечность строительных конструкций.

На сегодняшний день в строительстве используется несколько различных теплоизоляционных материалов. Обычные материалы, такие как стекловата, минеральная вата, пенополистирол и экструдированный полистирол, требуют толстой оболочки здания для достижения достаточно низкого коэффициента теплопередачи. При энергетической модернизации старых зданий необходимо учитывать несколько факторов, таких как ограниченное пространство и особенности элементов фасада, чтобы сократить потребление энергии. Вскоре новые высокоэффективные теплоизоляционные материалы и компоненты откроют перед архитекторами и инженерами новые возможности для проектирования энергоэффективных зданий.

Тепловая защита и общие энергетические характеристики здания зависят от пяти типов теплоизоляционных систем или материалов: минеральной ваты, стекловолокна, пеностекла, пустотелого кирпича и чердака из аэрогеля. жилая квартира и старое здание университета, реконструированное в 2023 году. Определено существенное ранжирование систем с точки зрения стоимости строительства, времени строительства, теплопроводности и экономии топлива во времени, сопротивления диффузии и огнестойкости.

Keywords: thermal insulation, thermal insulation system, façade, construction cost, construction time, decision-making methods.

Ключевые слова: теплоизоляция, система теплоизоляции, фасад, стоимость строительства, сроки строительства, методы принятия решений.


Heat transfer between objects in thermal contact or within the influence of radiation is reduced by thermal insulation. Special engineering techniques or processes can be used to achieve thermal insulation. Thermal insulation materials can be used inside and outside of all different kinds of buildings, including residential, commercial, industrial, and vela.

Mineral wool, also known as thermal insulation, is a versatile material that ensures the building is properly insulated, has effective acoustic insulation (it dampens air and shock sounds), and has properties that are both fire- and vapor-resistant. Rock wool and glass wool are the two main components of mineral wool, and they have a lot in common. The former is constructed using basalt, which has a high resistance to extremely high temperatures, while the latter is constructed using quartz sand or recycled glass.

Unquestionably, the characteristics of a building's envelope affect how much energy it uses. A key element in improving the construction industry's energy efficiency is the thermal performance of exterior walls.

Afghanistan must make the decision to reduce energy use for heating buildings, high wintertime air pollution, and summertime electricity shortages caused by insufficient cooling. Increased building envelope insulation is required to meet the goal. using traditional insulation materials, like expanded polystyrene and mineral wool.

Today's markets are filled with a variety of thermal insulation materials. They come in five main varieties and are widely used.

Among these materials, only Mineral Wool and Fiberglass are nonflammable, along with Polyurethane Foam, Cellulose, Fiberglass, and Polystyrene.

Condensation occurs when hot air is exposed to cold walls. Therefore, these phenomena are reduced by the help of thermal insulation. So, it can be comfortable in all seasons. In fact, this study examines the advantages of using thermal insulation materials in building. In addition to preventing condensation, which is the buildup of moisture on walls and ceilings, these materials enable the room to be kept cool in the summer and warm in the winter.

However, during my research by the comparison between the buildings that used thermal insulation I found that if the thermal insulation was used in the exterior side of the building it could protect the concrete walls and reinforcements from corrosion.

Literature Review

As a result of the social economy's ongoing growth, urbanization is becoming more rapid, which causes the building sector's resource consumption to rise steadily. The application of insulation materials to a building's exterior walls would aid in the envelope's ability to produce a well-insulated effect. It is well known that increasing the thermodynamic properties of a building's envelope is a key step in reducing the energy consumption of a building.

The research by Gong and co. (2021) found a wide range of temperatures that were maintained in the room, ranging from 12 °C to 20 °C in the winter.

By adding an opacifier to the material, it is possible to measure how quickly heat is transferred by radiation as temperature rises. According to Fricke et al. (1991), opacifiers include substances like carbon soot and titanium dioxide, both of which scatter light.

An international research team investigated the viability of using VIP in buildings from 2002 to 2005. In the IEA/ECBCS Annex 39 High Performance Thermal Insulation (HiPTI), researchers from Canada, Germany, France, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom collaborated. 20 buildings in total were built or retrofitted, and the effects on energy use, thermal bridges, and building physics were studied. Prior to being implemented extensively in buildings, VIP must first be tested (Binz et al., 2005). When using VIP, a thinner building envelope is needed than when using conventional insulation materials. However, VIP cannot be used on a construction site because it needs intricate technical plans for the building. A review of the literature on the use of VIP in various constructions—both brand-new structures and historically significant structures—is provided by Johansson (2012b).

Jelle (2011) provided a summary of the conventional and cutting-edge thermal insulation materials and components that are currently on the market along with a look toward what may be developed in the future. The gas filled panels (GFP), while currently in use, have an uncertain future. A panel with an internal honeycomb structure that has had its air removed and replaced with a less conductive gas, such as argon, krypton, or xenon, produces GFP. The component is like the VIP but requires a less sophisticated core and envelope material because it does not need to withstand the pressure of atmospheric gas on the envelope.

Insulation materials play a significant role in this scenario because thermal insulation is one of the best ways to reduce energy consumption that results from both winter heating and summer cooling. It is possible to achieve good indoor thermal comfort conditions and sufficient energy savings by choosing the right material, choosing the right thickness, and placing it in the right place.

With the constantly changing weather outside, a sizable portion of humanity struggles. According to Chappell and Shove (2005), comfort is more than just a matter of temperature, and residents' (users') expectations are heavily influenced by culture and custom.

Economic factors (energy poverty and economic hardship) frequently affect the useful temperature in habitations. One and a half billion people, or 3 billion people, struggle with energy poverty, according to Guruswamy's (2011) estimate.


The type of research that will be used in this article will be based on the qualitative analysis of online and scholarly sources that aims to provide an overview of how the Afghan people decide to use thermal insulation in their construction to avoid fuel consumption and environmental pollutions.

To evaluate and contrast the various nations' use of thermal insulation versus their lack of use of these materials, according to various climate zones. Afghanistan is one such country that is unfamiliar with the thermal insulation found in exterior walls. Therefore, this article discusses the advantages and cost-effectiveness of contemporary thermal insulation systems and materials by reviewing five different thermal insulation materials from the perspectives of five indicators. Cost of construction, duration of construction, thermal conductivity coefficient, diffusion resistance factor, and fire resistance are among the indicators. In six different Asian countries with varying temperatures that I had personally visited, the case study referred to a variety of residential structures as well as public structures like shops, schools, business buildings, and governmental structures such as universities.


Figure 1. Temperature degree of six different countries.

However, if we use thermal insulatin with the thickness of 10 cm, our cost would decrease because we can cover a 300 m2 building with 3000 $ and during 50 years we can save a lot.

Table 1. Economical price comparation of fuel consumption during 50 years in a residential building of four stairs with area of 300 m2 between six countries that located in various climate zone.



Fuel expenditure

In winter

Electricity Expenditure In summer


Used thermal insulation

Cost of fuel for 50 years


1 year

2000 $


3000 $


150000 $


1 year

500 $

400 $

900 $


45000 $


1 year

700 $

200 $

900 $


45000 $


1 year

1000 $

4000 $

5000 $


250000 $

Saudi Arabia

1 year

0 $

1000 $

1000 $


50000 $


1 year

0 $

1000 $

1000 $


50000 $


By utilizing and enhancing thermal efficiency and insulation, energy costs in construction can be decreased. By examining the impact of using thermal insulation in exterior walls, this study may help shape future indoor air quality regulations.

We recently developed a variety of insulation materials for the construction industry. .

Temperature, humidity, mechanical stress, exposure to corrosive liquids and vapors without appreciable changes in functional properties, and particularly density and thermal conductivity. It is possible to attribute the decline in operational stability to any one of these factors. installation of heat- and sound-insulating materials in accordance with improved fire resistance. Layers of thermal insulation must be non-combustible and provide a standard level of thermal resistance for exterior walls. Additionally, the interior lining needs to fully adhere to the standards for interior decoration, be made of waterproof materials, and offer the necessary protection against fire impact.

Conventional materials, such as glass wool, rock wool, expanded polystyrene and extruded polystyrene, require a thick building envelope to reach a sufficiently low thermal transmittance. When energy retrofitting old buildings several factors, such as the limited space and protected features of the façade, must be considered to reduce energy use.

The staged development of technical and energy requirements has an impact on the thermal protection and overall energy existence of a construction. There are five different types of thermal insulation materials that can be used in all kinds of constructions, but recently, rockwool and glass wool have gained popularity.

Cavity walls, exterior walls, partition walls, and stored floors are typically all lined with mineral wool. They are also widely used in industrial applications, such as those involving equipment, air conditioners, etc. Additionally, this article compared the fuel consumption in six nations across six different climate zones in Asia. buildings that use thermal insulation but do not.


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