Health of young people of Kazakhstan and Russia

Абдрашитова Айгерим Хасеновна – аспирант Российского государственного социального университета.

Аннотация: Здоровье молодежи является важным направлением государственной политики. По этой причине необходимо исследовать факторов, которые оказывают воздействие на здоровье молодежи. Это позволит спрогнозировать возможные изменения и разработать меры по улучшению ситуации в области охраны здоровья молодежи.

Abstract: The Study of factors and tendencies of influencing on the health of the youth, its place in the system of value has to be necessary for predicting of possible changes and development of complex measures on the improvement of situation of health protection of the young generation.

The sociological researches conducted in Kazakhstan and Russia allow to analyse the health states of youth, their awareness about the methods of maintenance of health also can be used in the development of recommendation of the field of youth policy, health protection as well as.

Ключевые слова: здоровье, молодежь, охрана здоровья, формирование здоровья, ценность здоровья.

Keywords: health, young people, health protection, health formation, value of health.

1 INTRODUCTION

The youth are more vulnerable group, who is exposed to various social risks. Young people sharply react to what is happening in society changes, adapting quickly enough to them. On a background of self-determination, the necessity to obtain education and employment, health is one the most important components of full life – becomes secondary. Such tendency is traced during the last decade [2, p. 5]. The reasons are socio-economic change, environmental and social problems of the population, little attention of health activities of the whole society. Besides, the health of young people are influenced by the growing level of unemployment and poverty and deepening differences between income and consumption of the population, availability of medical services, degradation of the individual and the institution of the family. The situation is typical both for Russia and for Kazakhstan. The main problem is the reduction of the quantity among young people. Accordingly, it is shown in the structure of general population of the country. According to statistics, 31,4 million young people live in Russia, which is 21,5% of the total number of residents [18]. In Kazakhstan – about more than 4 million, and it is 22,3% of the total population of the republic [20, p. 214].

In Kazakhstan and Russia, the state youth policy is the main instrument of adjusting of the questions related to the young people. In strategy of development of youth of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2025 one of the tasks for the «…formation of values for a healthy lifestyle, the creation of conditions for the physical development of young people, the formation of ecological culture, as well as the raising level of safety culture for the life of youth»1. But statistics show negative showing. Only 28% of young people in Russia consider themselves completely healthy, ordinary illnesses (flu, tooth decay, etc.) ill 62%. 11% (4,2 million people) have chronic diseases and 0,2% (76 thousand) have a disability [9, p. 13]. According to the Ministry of health, 11% of students are healthy, 45% belong to the risk group, more than 50% have pathological rejections. Medical data for the examination of undergraduate students show that on average, 1 student face to 1-2 with a chronic disease [11, p. 57]. The mortality rate among young people is influenced by such factors as alcoholism, diseases of the circulatory system, infectious and parasitic diseases and diseases of digestive organs [16, p. 72].

The state youth policy of Kazakhstan also determines the main direction of health and healthy lifestyle. Attention is paid to the necessity of increasing the motivation to lead a healthy lifestyle of young people turning their attention to preventive events. The concept of "youth" and «physical culture» should be an integral part of the lifestyle of a young man. But in a country increases every year the proportion of young people who are affected by socially significant diseases. These include tuberculosis, HIV, diabetes, malignancies, mental disorder and conduct disorder, degenerative diseases of the nervous system, chronic viral hepatitis and liver cirrhosis, rheumatic fever, systemic lesion of the connective tissue, orphan diseases. All these diseases in 2015 were included in the list of socially significant diseases and disease that pose a danger to others. The causes of these illnesses are use of drugs and alcohol, smoking and deterioration of social status, lack of physical activity, unprotected sexual intercourse.

Taking into account, youth health is an important platform for individual, physiological and professional development, determining the degree of importance of place in the hierarchy of values of young generation, assessment of factors and trends affecting its formation becomes relevant.

2 METHODS

Note should be taken to the definition of «health» in sociology. According to H. Spencer's health is the result of the steady-state equilibrium of internal relations to external. To consider health as a value offering P. I. Kalju [7 – (Kalju, 1988, p. 69)]. It is a prerequisite for a full life, participation in work and social life: academic, cultural, and economic activities. I. V. Zhuravlev [21 – (Zhuravleva, 2006, p. 238)] says that the increase in incidence among adolescents and young people affected by the lack of ideology of health in Russia. Low level of hygienic awareness and literacy becomes factors significantly reduces the preventive potential to prevent basic diseases and to respond to preventive measures [14, p. 150].

To explore young people's attitudes to their own health analyzed secondary research of Russian scientists from Altai, Khabarovsk and Belgorod. A study in the Altai state University [19, p. 11] showed that 51,2% of respondents think it's necessary to maintain healthy physical activity, physical education or sports, but for various reasons do not comply. Sedentary lifestyles are 48,8% of students who spend their free time at home on the computer, TV and social networks. Difficult situation is observed in the youth physical culture and sports. It was found that only 24,3% of the respondents exercise regularly. A positive indicator is the fact that in the ranking of the values they put health on the second place after education. A high level of health gives a competitive advantage in the labor market they say.

Research about the harmful habits was held in Belgorod [18]. 76.5% of respondents answered that they do not smoke. A positive response was given to 11,8% of the respondents. Sometimes smoke is 11,8%. Alcohol use 13,7%, sometimes 54,9%. Completely refuse from alcohol 31,4% of respondents.

According to the results of a study conducted at the Khabarovsk state Academy of Economics and law [10] students distinguish among the risk factors to health particularly alcohol abuse is 75,6% and the Smoking of 73,5%. Following are lack of physical activity and 39,9% and congestion training of professional and household duties is 7,9%. And to maintain their physical condition makes them «desire to feel confident among other people, to make them respect« (68,1%) and «to enjoy physical activities, experience the joy and beauty of the movements of the body, to experience a muscular joy, feel high muscle tone» (44,5%). The main sources of information for the health of young people lessons of physical education: 38% theory and 51% – practical. A noticeable effect of mass media: newspapers 25% television and radio reports – 44%. A visit to a sporting event and showmanship to influence only 23% of respondents.

In Kazakhstan, a comprehensive study of youth engaged in a research center «Youth». According to them held the republican study revealed the number of young drug addicts in 2016 was 17 792 people, which is much higher than in the year 2015 when the total number of registered health authorities as alcoholics and drug addicts, was 8 916 [1].

The first actual health problem of youth of Kazakhstan is tuberculosis. The number of cases of morbidity among young people with TB in recent years has decreased significantly: in 2015, 5375 people, and in 2016 – 4817. For the first half of 2017, the number of teenagers (15-17 years), consisting on the dispensary account on the incidence of tuberculosis to 703 people. Advancement factor «Prevalence» shows the data of the Global competitiveness index of the world Economic Forum for 2016-2017: Kazakhstan 101 place among 140 countries have risen to the 92nd place among 138 countries. In the regional context for the dissemination of tuberculous disease at the beginning of 2017 show the largest number of infected people in areas such as Almaty, Atyrau, Kyzylorda and Turkestan.

The main causes of mortality of young people of Kazakhstan are circulatory diseases, malignant neoplasms, accidents, injuries and poisoning. In 2015 the number of cancer patients amongst the youth of 874 cases in 2016, this figure decreased by 745 [20, p. 277]. In regional terms, a significant decline in such disease is observed in Almaty, Turkestan, Zhambyl regions.

And the third actual disease of young people recorded mental disorder. For the first half of 2017 48 081 person consist in the dispensary for diseases of the mental sphere.

Another important aspect of the formation of youth health is the state of the environment. Because of the development of mining and processing industry in Kazakhstan, noticed a high degree of air pollution, especially the cities of Aktau, Temirtau, Taraz, Petropavl, Shymkent and Almaty. Children and adolescents largely than adults are sensitive to adverse environmental influences, as manifested by the reduced functionality and the body's defenses, increased morbidity and deterioration of health in later life. Because of this acute illness endocrine, musculoskeletal system, diseases of the circulatory system.

3 RESULTS

The most important value of Russian youth is physical and mental health [15, p. 81]. As a result, the event must be provided with the increase in human capital of young people at 10-12% by 2025, prevented the reduction of economically active young people in connection with an increased mortality at a young age, injury and disability, reduction of losses in productivity due to the use of drugs and alcohol [20, p. 11].

The results show that the ongoing maintenance work at least show improvement, but still require support and responsible attitude on the part of youth. Now the following steps are taken [12]:

  • given the peculiarities of perception of information in different stages of establishing a system of propaganda for the preservation of health and healthy lifestyles for certain groups of youth respectively;
  • taking into account age characteristics, young people are actively involved in the practice of healthy lifestyles (healthy eating, avoiding alcohol, smoking, drugs, sports and physical culture);
  • preventive action;
  • systematic measures are carried out aimed at supporting the health of children in young families, preventing hereditary diseases, raising reproductive attitudes, etc.;
  • development of the industry of rest and recuperation during vacation and summer holidays, based on sport-recreation camps.

In Russia, 2012-2017 constructed and reconstructed 80 thousand sports objects. Thus two increased the security of citizens’ sports facilities. During this period, were discovered a variety of sports schools, which are trained on 3.3 million children and adolescents. From the Federal budget annually 260 mass sports, events are conducted and 140 competition for children and youth. Last year they were attended by over 22 million people [15, p. 249].

To participate in the program of physical education of the country, whose goal is the development of mass sports and health improvement of nation and «Ready for labor and defense» signed up 7 million people, including 2,8 million people began to run tests. All standards are fulfilled 1,2 million, which is much more compared to 2016. Then their number amounted to 417 thousand [8]. 

 The importance of health of youth of Kazakhstan grows with the years: if in 2016 this figure was 56,7%, in 2017 – 57,5% [20, p. 15]. The deterioration of the health of young people has led to the opening of Youth health centers. The centers work on the 4D principles: «Voluntariness», «Availability», «Goodwill», «Trust». In these centers, experts provide free consultations and comprehensive preventive measures on the issues of reproductive health, prevention of harmful habits, stress, and depression, offer anonymous services of a psychologist, gynecologist and urologist [13]. Youth health centers operate on the basis of municipal, district organizations, primary health care, regional and district centers of a healthy lifestyle, universities and public organizations. Their number increased from 17 in 2011 to 94 in 2017. For the last 6 months of 2017 asked for help 231 833 people. Of these, 90 982 males and 140 851 female [20, p. 281].

In the framework of promoting the values of health and healthy lifestyle among the youth carried out various activities that affect the formation of such positive trends as participation in sports, avoiding harmful habits, responsible attitude to their own health. For this reason, the country has created all conditions for development of sport and active occupations for the youth. In the Republic were built stadiums, sports schools, swimming pools, and hundreds of other sports facilities. According to the Committee of sports and physical culture in Kazakhstan in 2017 functioned 11,1 thousand sports facilities, compared to 2015 year increased by 4%. Also in 2017 put into operation 11 fitness centers. By the end of 2016 reached more than 4 million people with occupations by physical culture and sports. In three years this indicator grew by 2,3%. Major role was played by the system based on sports events, which every year take part more than 5 million people [5].

The Ministry of health of the Republic Kazakhstan for the year 2016, held 45 915 events, including: trainings – 5846, stock – 873, of the round tables – 1433, competitions and sports events – 1215, conference – 131, the days of open doors – 698 other – 28231 covering 804 419 people. For the 6 months of 2017 conducted more than 33,000 events, including: trainings – 3164, action – 481, round tables, 374, competitions and sports events – 491, conference 38, the open days – 328 and other – 28224 covering 370 000 people [20, p. 281].

Indicators of 2017, 20% (186 thousand people) the students involved in sports, in colleges, the figure was 30% (more than 283 thousand). Of the 125 Universities in the country is 113-year-clubs are, where 175 thousand students or 48,7% of their total number. In 757 post-secondary educational institutions, more than 290 thousand students in sports, accounting for 64,2% of the total number of students [13].

For the intensive development of sport among students in 2014, the country has a national student League with football, volleyball, basketball [17]. It is planned that by 2020 the League will cover all universities of the country. Over the past year, organized 556 television broadcasts, 283 of publications and placing information on the websites of the Youth health centers and social networks.

4 CONSLUSION

The health of young people first of all serves as a guarantee of stable and prosperous development of society. They are an indicator of the labor potential of the country. Therefore, do not lose the need to convey for youth the importance of maintaining health and caring for its relevance. One of these ways are physical culture in educational institutions. There is underestimation of the role of the discipline «Physical culture» in higher education. Their role is not limited to the formation of academic knowledge of the students; they are designed to give indestructible attitudes for a healthy lifestyle. Functions of Universities in this case is to get to teach the young man to keep the balance and to distribute the balance of the process of acquiring knowledge and maintaining a healthy lifestyle. 

Despite the fact that Russia and Kazakhstan can be a positive trend of attracting young people to the preservation of health and healthy lifestyles of young people, the risks of increasing problems with alcoholism, Smoking and infection of the socially significant diseases still remain high. Young people understand the importance of health, but rarely take action to strengthen it. This contributes to a small number of necessary premises. They are busy with work, educational process, but the economic difficulties exacerbate the situation. In addition, social networks, low awareness about the health do not benefit the health of young people.

Based on the above facts, we consider it necessary at the state level to strengthen the work on shaping the value of health in the youth environment, using as priority areas related to the creation of a positive image of youth leading a healthy lifestyle, as well as the development of a sports and recreational infrastructure for recreation and health improvement for young people.

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1Order of the Government of the Russian Federation from November 29, 2014 No. 2403-r "On Approval of the Fundamentals of State Youth Policy until 2025"

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