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Strengthening of the state under the rule of Kasym Khan

Тасилова Назия Айтбаевна – кандидат исторических наук, доцент Казахского национального университета имени аль-Фараби.

Жаппасов Жарылкасын Еркинович – кандидат исторических наук, доцент Казахского национального университета имени аль-Фараби.

Аннотация: Осмысление хода истории неизбежно ставит вопрос о роли той или иной личности в ней. Роль выдающихся людей в процессе становления государств, создания империй, цивилизаций и т. д. К сожалению, специальных исследований на эту тему очень мало.

Актуальной темой в исторической науке является изучение роли казахских ханов и султанов в средневековой истории Казахстана. Существовавшая до этого догма о том, что "история общества есть история классовой борьбы", не учитывала того, что роль личности особенно велика в годы переломных событий. Когда в это время шел процесс консолидации молодого казахского государства, на политической сцене Казахской степи появилась выдающаяся личность - Хан Касым (1511-1521 гг.) - сын Джаныбека, который, по словам Мухаммеда-Хайдара, известного ученого на Востоке в XVI веке, пишет об этом В. Вельямин-Зернов "был могущественнее, чем кто-либо со времен Джучи-хана: численность его войск превышала сто тысяч человек." В этот период основная ставка Касыма находилась в районе реки Каратал в Северном Семиречье. Однако основные кочевые племена казахов простирались к нему до бассейна рек Джиланчик, Улкун-Кенгир, Сары-Су и среднего течения Сырдарьи). В начале XVI века. ему удалось объединить под своей властью всех казахов.

Abstract: Comprehension of the course of history inevitably raises questions about the role of one or another personality in it. The role of outstanding people in the process of the formation of states, the creation of an empire, civilizations, etc. Unfortunately, there is very little special research on this topic.An actual theme in historical science is the study of the role of Kazakh khans and sultans in the medieval history of Kazakhstan. The dogma that existed before that "the history of society was the history of class struggle" did not take into account that the role of the individual is especially great in the years of turning events. When the process of consolidating the young Kazakh state was underway at this time, an outstanding personality appeared on the political scene in the Kazakh steppe - Khan Kasym (1511-1521) - the son of Janybek, who, according to Muhamed-Haydar, a well-known scientist in the East in the 16th century, , writes about this VV. Velyamin-Zernov, " was as powerful as no one had ever been since Juchi Khan: the number of his troops exceeded one hundred thousand."

During this period, Kasym's main stake was in the area of the Karatal River in the Northern Semirechye. However, the main nomadic tribes of the Kazakhs extended to him stretched to the basin of the rivers Djilanchik, Ulkun-Kengir, Sary-Su and the middle Syr-darya current). At the beginning of the XVI century. he managed to unite under his authority all the Kazakhs.

Ключевые слова: Государственность, ханства, источники, политические связи, международные связи, дипломатия.

Keywords: Statehood, khanates, sources, political, international, ties, diplomacy.

There were several khans who occupy a special place in the history of the Kazakh khanate in the XVI century. Their historical role is assessed by the political, economic and military situation of the khanate under of each Khan. At the beginning of the XVII century, first of all, we see the expansion of the territory of the Kazakh khanate, strengthening of the state, population growth, popularization of the Kazakh people and the state in the countries of the near and far abroad. In particular, about Kasym Khan, which is found in the oral literature of the Kazakh people, the phrase "the way of Kasym Khan" indicates that the historical person who existed half a thousand years ago occupies a deep and stable place in the consciousness of the people.

In medieval written sources, there is no information reflecting the personal biography of Kasym Khan, only brief information, brief from the life of his Sultan and Khan, is found in various medieval sources. Among them "chronicle of the Turks" of Abulgazi, "a set of Chronicles" of Kadyrgali Zhalair, "Baburnama" of Babir, "Mihman name Bara" Ibn Ruzbihan Isfahani, Bina and Shadi, "Bahr al-Asrar" Mahmud Ibn Uli, the works of "Historical Rashidi" Haider Razi, Zhaffari, Abdollah Balkhi, Muhammed Khaidar Dulati and anonymous works of " Tarihi of guidei Nusrat nama” [1].

Kasym Khan in the XVII century was born a direct descendant of the Khan Ak-Orda of the Urus Khan " one of the seven sons of Urus Khan-Koyyrshak, Barak Khan, three sons from Barak: Myr Sayd, Myr Kasim and Abu Sayd.” Abu Sayd is called Janibek Khan, it is written that Janibek Khan had nine sons-Irenshi, Mahmud, Kasim, Adik, Zhanysh, Kambar, Tanysh, Osnak( Osak), Jadik.

All the grandfathers of Kasym Khan once created a khanate in Deshti Kipchak. In 1361-1376/77, Urus Khan ruled Ak Orda, whose son became Khan in the ulus of Jochi at the end of the XIV century.

Kasym Khan's grandfather Barak Khan in 1420-1421 received help from the ruler of Transoxiana Ulugbek and once again fought for the Golden Horde. In 1424-25, after defeating Uluk Muhammad, he came to the throne of the Golden Horde, and died in 1428, " the report says. He was considered a " strong Boer” among the contenders for the rule of the Golden Horde.

Kasym Khan's father Zhanibek Khan, who was called “the younger Zhanibek” in the sources. This is evidenced by the data that Janibek Khan in the middle of the XV century was the ruler of the Kazakh khanate after Kerey Khan.

Historian B. Karibaev, based on "Hordaezhen" statement, based on the data of Rashid-Adin" Zhamig at-tauarikhy" and "anonymity of Eskendir", pronounced the chronicle of Kasym Khan as follows: Chingiz Khan – Zhoshy – Orda Ezhen – Sartaktay – Konysh – Sasa Buka – Shymtay – Urus Khan – Kuyyrsh Khan -- Barak Khan -- Zhanibek Khan.. We believe this opinion is correct.

 Two of the 9 sons of Zhanibek Khan: Kasim Khan and Kambar were born from the same mother, Zhagan-beeke. The year of birth of Kasym Khan is unknown. However, the date of his birth can be judged by the work of Muhammad Khaidar Dulati. He wrote that in 1513 Sultan Said Khan came to the court of Kasym Khan near Shu, "at that time Kasym Khan was from sixty to seventy". Based on this, if we assume that in 1513 Kasym Khan was 67-68 years old, then he was born in 1445-1446. Researcher T. I. Sultanov believes that Kasym Khan was born around 1445 years[2].

Information about the life of Kasym Khan did not appear in any sources until 1470. In the first half of the 70s of the XV century, when Shaibani Khan, United with the Mangyt lords in the fight against the Kazakh khanate, the name of Kasym Sultan was first mentioned. The author of "Shaibani nama" says about Kasym Khan of those years: "He is one of the famous heroes and famous sultans in the army of the former Khan."

The Sultanate during the life of Kasym Khan lasted until 1511, during the struggle for the strengthening of the Kazakh khanate and the Syr Darya. Kasym Khan was directly involved in the events of that time and played an important role. In the early stages of the struggle, he was the commander of the Kazakh army and was always with Buryndyk Khan. "Obedience to Buryndyk Khan and submission to him" appears in the early 16th century, during the campaigns of Khan Muhammad Shaibani on the Kazakh khanate. Especially during the last campaign of 1510, after the death of Sultan Adik in the early 16th century, he married Nigar Sultan and became "the most powerful and influential person". On last campaign of the ruler of Transoxiana Shaibani Khan in Central Asia against the Kazakh khanate, although Kasym Khan was not officially a Khan, but "his power increased so much that no one cared about Buryndyk Khan" and "took control of the khanate and all the power".

The defeat of the army of Shaibani Khan by Kasym Khan in 1510 increased his authority in Desht-Kipchak, and the Kazakh society recognized his political authority. After the departure of Buryndyk Khan to Transoxiana in 1511, Kasym Khan himself came to power.

The Khan's period of Kasym Khan's life began in 1511. According to the ancient Turkic tradition, he was raised by a Khan on white felt. From the very beginning, Kasym Khan sought to settle relations with neighboring countries not by force, but by common sense and mutual consent. For half a century, the Kazakh army, which did not lose a spear and a sword in the defense of the country, of course, longed for peace.

Next, we consider the era of Kasym Khan's rule in parallel with the history of the Kazakh khanate. After all, his era of khanate rule will be closely linked to the issue of political relations between the Kazakh khanate and Shaibani's Transoxiana for the conquest of cities along the Syr[3].

When Kasym Khan came to power, the political life of Transoxiana, the main rival of the Kazakh khanate in the South, changed dramatically. This was the death of Shaibani Khan in the autumn of 1510. Babar captured Samarkand with the help of Ismail Shah, the founder of the Safavid dynasty in Iran, and ruled Transoxiana for 6-7 months and in the spring of 1512, the combined power of the shaibanid sultans was restored by the expulsion of Babar from Transoxiana and the rule of “nomadic Uzbeks”. Also in the South-East of the Kazakh khanate, Sultan Sayd Khan of the Chagatai took advantage of the political situation in Transoxiana in those years and sought to restore the rule of the Chagatai dynasty in Mongolia. In such a difficult political situation, the Kazakh khanate should pursue a rational foreign policy. In this regard, the skillful diplomatic qualities of Kasym Khan are clearly visible. To keep things clear, let's start with the situation in Transoxiana.

After the death of Shaibani Khan in the autumn of 1510, there was a power struggle between the Shaibani sultans. Realizing this, the descendants of Timur left Kabul and went to Transoxiana. In the autumn of 1511, with the help of the Islamic Shah, he established his rule in Transoxiana for 6-7 months. Babur appointed his people as rulers of the cities of Transoxiana and its dependencies. There is no information about the relations of Babur with the Kazakh khanate in the period of his reign in Transoxiana[4].

In his article, researcher N. Atygaev noted that during the reign of Kasym Khan, the Kazakhs fought against the Uzbeks, but the Safavid dynasty joined them and fought against Ismail I-Shah. According to data belonging to the Safavid dynasty, in the anonymous " Alam Ara-I Safavi” (Safavids, who make the world prosperous) in Persian, in the first half of the 16th century, that is, according to the Hijra in 919, and according to our account of years, in 1513-1514, there is evidence that the Kazakhs united with the uzbeks and fought against the Safavids. The Uzbek Sultan Zhanibek, who ruled Otrar, was sent to help the Kazakh Kasym Khan. It contains information that Kasym Khan had a son named Abulkhair Khan, whose name was not mentioned in any sources, and that Abulkhair sent a large army against Kasym-Ismail-Shah. Researcher N. Arygaev warns that the data is historical and they can be trusted[5].

3-4 months after the events near Tashkent, Sultan said Khan came to Kasym Khan to fight with the Shaibani sultans. This is very well described in the Historical Rashidi. From the information in this author's report, it is clear that Kasym Khan enjoyed great authority in the Kazakh khanate. "Kasym Khan could not meet the Khan due to his advanced age. The other sultans, such as Zhanysh Khan, Tanysh Khan, Manash Khan, Zhan-Haider Sultan, Karym Sultan and others, are 50-60 years old. In total, 30-40 sultans from the Jochi dynasty were ordered to meet with the Khan, " Muhammad Khaidar Dulati said.

This information shows that many sultans listened to Kasym Khan and were with him, which shows that his rule extended to Desht-Kipchak, and secondly, that the internal political situation of the Kazakh khanate was stable under Kasym Khan. Kasym Khan sent Sultan Sayd to Andijan, answering about the difficulties of this period, that the steppe people were worried about wintering and about the inability to gather an army during the winter on the offer of an alliance against the shaibanids.

The Kazakh khanate keeps their possessions along with Syr, in the South bordered by Transoxiana on the territory of Tashkent. Until the end of the first quarter of the XVI century, the Turkestan region together with Desht Kipchak formed a single political, economic, and ethno-cultural space. Joining Zhetysu and Syr Darya to the Kazakh khanate was a great victory in uniting the economic territory of the Kazakh tribes.

The role of Kasym Khan in strengthening the Kazakh khanate is often found in the data of historians who lived at that time. In the works of Babur, Muhammad Khaidar Dulati, Mahmud Ibn Wali, Kadyrgali Zhalayri, Haidar Razi, Zhaffari there is information about Kasym Khan, about his numerous army, and that there is no doubt that the Kazakh khanate at that time was a strong commander of Kasym Khan, a strong historical figure able to hold the state in their hands, solve the situation in favor of their country due to their diplomatic abilities in foreign policy with neighboring countries.

Therefore, the fruitful political relations of the Kazakh khanate with Transoxiana during the reign of Kasym Khan allowed not only to expand its territory in the South and South-East directions, but also to establish political relations in the West. If the annexation of the pre-Volga lands to the Kazakh khanate was a stage of unification of the ethnic territory of the Kazakh tribes, it would be dangerous for Moscow. Information about the growing Kazakh khanate reaches the countries of Western Europe.

Most importantly, the phrase about Kasym Khan, found in the oral literature of the Kazakh people, "the Way of Kasym Khan" shows that the historical figure who lived five thousand years ago, occupies a deep and stable place in the minds of people. Some sources claim that the connection with Moscow was established at the beginning of the XVI century, during the reign of Kasym Khan. Although there is no clear evidence of Kazakh-Russian relations at the beginning of the XVI century, during the reign of Kasym Khan, many researchers confirm this[6]. This is evidenced by the fact that in the inventory of 1575-1584 years, stored in the Royal archives, in column 38, there is information that "Kazakh books and lists of the reign of the Kasym king" have been preserved. In fact, during the reign of Kasym Khan (1480-1521), the Kazakh khanate was politically strong, expanding its territory and posing a threat to European countries. If we take into account that Kasym Khan ruled from 1510 to 1521, this 38th box contains documents concerning the Kazakh people of the XV-XVI centuries, and the relationship between the two countries.

The Kazakh people remember the name of Kasym Khan, who in the first quarter of the XVI century strengthened the Kazakh khanate and spread the name of the Kazakh people to far and near countries. His name was preserved for fifteen hundred years. It was during the reign of Kasym Khan that the territory increased, the population grew, and the power and might of the khanate grew. In history, the direction of this great figure became known as "the Way of Kasym Khan".

The law called "Kaska Zhol" was created during the reign of Kasym Khan on the basis of long-established Kazakh customs. B. Karibayev[7] explains the reason for its creation:

  1. During the reign of Kasym Khan, the Kazakh society under the khans Kerey and Zhanibek and Buryndyk rose to a higher level;
  2. The Ethnic territory of the Kazakh people will be fully integrated;
  3. The role of the Royal authority will be fully extended to the ethnic territory;
  4. The population increased several times during the reign of Kasym Khan;
  5. Since the old customary law does not correspond to the new position of the Kazakh khanate, it is necessary to adapt it to the requirements of the new era. For these reasons, the "Kaska zhol" was born. Although there is no written text of this law, we see that keeping the name of the law in the minds of the Kazakh people for half a thousand years "Kaska Zhol" was very reasonable for the Kazakhs, compatible with social relations.

The Kazakh people remember the name of Kasym Khan, who in the first quarter of the XVI century strengthened the Kazakh khanate and spread the name of the Kazakh people to far and near countries. It has been preserved for fifteen hundred years. Folklore proves that the so-called "path of Kasym Khan" was not enough for us. It was during the reign of Kasym Khan that the territory increased, the population grew, and the power and might of the khanate grew. In history, the direction of this great figure became known as the"path of Kasym". Speaking of Kasym Khan, we can not fail to mention the "path of Kasym". Although there is no written text of this law, we see that the name of the law remained in the minds of the Kazakh people for half a thousand years.

Researcher S. Zholdasbaev in the new study illustrates the rules of this "Kaska Zhol" as follows:

  1. The right of ownership (land dispute, property dispute);
  2. Criminal law (murder, robbery, rape, theft);
  3. Military law (Alaman's debt, army formation, black cauldron, land value, Tulpar horse);
  4. Embassy rituals (eloquence, decency, politeness, politeness);
  5. Public law (desert rules, food, weddings, holidays, fog, horse racing, horse racing rules).

As for the question, in what year did Kasym Khan die? Kadyrgali Zhalayri wrote that Kasym Khan died at the age of 76 and was buried in the cemetery of the Golden Horde khans in Saraishyk, where a high dome was erected over his grave. According to Muhammad Khaidar Dulati, Kasim Khan died in 1518, and according to the historian Tahir Muhammad, he died in 1523-24. Referring to the information of B. Karibayev, A. Isin [8] compared historical data and clarified that Kasym Khan died in the winter of 1521.

In general, in the first quarter of the XVI century, the Kazakh khanate in the course of political relations with the Shaibani dynasty attached special vital importance to the Kazakh khanate. This situation has a direct impact on the strengthening of the khanate.

Until the first quarter of the XVI century, the Kazakh khanate won the first stage of the struggle for Syr[9]. This victory was the first successful step in uniting the ethnic territory of the Kazakh tribes and created conditions for regional integration into the final Kazakh khanate.

References

  1. Materials on the history of the Kazakh khanates of the XV-XVIII centuries. (Extracts from Persian and Turkic writings). Compiled By: S. K. Ibragimov, N. N. Mingulov, K. A. Pishchulina, V. P. Yudin. - Alma-Ata, 1969.
  2. Sultanov T.I. Raised on a white cat. Descendants of Genghis Khan. - Almaty: Dyke Press, 2001.
  3. Abuseitova M. Kh. Kazakhstan and Central Asia in the XV-XVII centuries: History. Politics. Diplomacy. - Almaty, 1998. - 129 p.
  4. By Dr. Mohommad Aslam. The uzbeks. //The Rulіng dynastіes of Central Asіa Area Study Centre Unіversіty of Peshawar. – 1988. – 227-236 р.
  5. Atygaev N. Participation of Kazakhs in the struggle of Uzbeks with the Safavid state in the first half of the XVII century. // Otechestvennaya istori. - 2002. № - 62 p.
  6. Zhappasov Zh. E. History of Kazakh-Russian relations of the XVI-XVIII centuries-Almaty: Kazakh University Press, 2011. - 147 p.
  7. Karibayev B. B. History of the Kazakh khanate. - Almaty: Sardar, 2014. - 520 p.
  8. Isin A. Materials of the Embassy order of the Russian state on the Kazakh khanate of the XVII-early XVII centuries. // Questions of historiography and source studies of Kazakhstan. - Alma-Ata: Nauka, 1988. - 165 p.
  9. Pishchulina K. A. Prisyrdarin cities and their significance in the history of the Kazakh khanates in the XV-XVII centuries. // Kazakhstan in the XV-XVIII centuries. - Almaty, 1969.

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