УДК 37

Development of communicative competencies of legal specialties students

Усанова Варвара Ильинична – студент Юридического института Тихоокеанского государственного университета.

Рябинина Мария Васильевна – старший преподаватель кафедры Иностранных языков Тихоокеанского государственного университета.

Abstract: This article discusses the main problems which teachers of linguistic disciplines face in conditions of remote education within the framework of training students of legal specialties:

  1. predominantly low level of existing training of students;
  2. extremely a small number of hours that are allocated by curricula and programs for the development of disciplines related to business and public communication.

Besides, the main problem of teaching foreign languages are considered, which consists in motivation of students to master them, which is directly related to the practical applicability of acquired skills. In conclusion, the main contours were reflected solutions to problems that teachers may face in their professional work in teaching students speech disciplines: cardinal increase in the number of teaching hours, as well as the teaching of foreign languages law students on a differentiated basis, depending on their motivation.

Keywords: communicative competencies, distance education, law, higher education, business and public communications.

Pandemic of a new coronavirus infection, which began in 2020 and continuing to the present, has become an urgent global problem of all humanity. The national authorities are taking all possible measures to combat virus, large-scale vaccination programs are underway in developed countries of the population, however, the emergence of new strains of infection leaves the issue of introduction and cancellation of short-term lockdowns on the principle of "stop and go".

As you know, lockdowns make their own adjustments to the functioning of many spheres of public life, including those whose activities are characterized by continuity. The consequences of such restrictions affect the higher education, which in the conditions of lockdowns is carried out in a remote format [2, p.39].

Strictly speaking, distance technologies in higher education are not response solely to the threat of the spread of a new coronavirus infection. As noted S. V. Telnova, “traditional forms of education in modern educational practice is replaced by progressive innovative technologies” [5, p.102]. Some lecture courses and seminars on humanitarian and socio-economic disciplines, especially in master's programs, have long been held online. This mode of mastering the material and obtaining skills allows undergraduates save time on full-time attendance at a higher educational institution, which is for such categories of students are particularly relevant, since they tend to combine active learning. In addition, some authors claim that “modern information technologies introduced into the educational process, contribute to a more effective perception of educational information” [4, p.101].

Accordingly, distance education also affects the language sphere, including including in the direction of teaching students of legal specialties. However, in order to to correlate the specifics of language training with its manifestation in professional legal activity and, in turn, with distance education, it is necessary first to characterize the specifics of the linguistic training of law students in the most general way.

It is not surprising to anyone that speech training serves an important component in the formation of the legal profession. First, it is worth talking about well-delivered oral speech, which should be characterized by purity, the absence of gross errors in the connections of words and endings, as well as integrity, reasoning and logic. Of course, the notion that a literate oral speech is necessary for a specialist in the field of law to speak in court, in fact are clichéd and highly reduced. Courts of general jurisdiction and arbitration courts of the Russian Federation as part of domestic legal matter, existing within the framework of the Russian legal system - part of the Romano-Germanic legal family - are repelled mainly from written and actual evidence, whereby honed rhetorical skill is not essential competitive advantage over other professionals. Nevertheless, competent oral speech is needed in order to: 1) own position was clearly reasoned and formed by means of speech constructions according to the scheme "thesis evidence-conclusions"; 2) interlocutors through dialogue talked about the same thing subject. An important role in this direction is played, in addition to speech training, by formal logic, however, alas, the teaching of formal logic in law schools and law faculties corresponds to the name of the subject, that is, it is formal.

Secondly, it is worth talking about well-delivered written speech. Its practical it finds application in the preparation of procedural documents, analytical reports, expert opinions. If we turn to a number of judicial, procedural and administrative acts, it is easy to notice the presence of gross speech errors in them and inaccuracies. This is largely due to their formulaic nature, drawing up according to conveyor principle due to the high workload of junior employees of the relevant devices, as well as extremely low motivation to maintain the latest labor activities due to low wages. However, despite this circumstance carried out in accordance with the rules of written speech culture document flow is the hallmark of a state body or a private organization, which ultimately affects the reputational potential the latter.

Based on the results of this study, we found that teachers of linguistic disciplines in distance education face two main problems: 1) predominantly low levels available student training; 2) an extremely small number of hours that are distinguished by curricula and programs for the development of disciplines related to business and public communication.

The first problem, in turn, can be segmented into smaller subproblems: 1) the objects of teaching within the curriculum are both trained and untrained students; 2) initial type training during in many respects it is not aimed at the development of creative potential in the speech sphere. Consider each of the subproblems separately.

Teachers of business and public communication provide training in within study groups. The latter are formed by those students who master material at the expense of budget allocations (that is, we are talking about high competitive requirements for admission to a higher education institution), and those students who master the educational material at their own expense (that is, competitive requirements much lower and, accordingly, the initial potential of such students is at low level). Thus, there is an uneven assimilation of the same educational material, because the introductory speech training of students is characterized by differentiation.

In the Russian Federation, speech training of students mastering programs secondary (complete) general education, is determined by the results of the Unified state exam. The results of the latter, therefore, determine the possibility or impossibility of admission of an applicant to legal areas in higher educational institutions. On the one hand, the Unified State Examination, is undoubtedly a powerful motivating factor for mastering even at the stage school education basic principles of spelling, punctuation, syntax, and stylistics. On the other hand, it is difficult to argue with the fact that the Unified State the exam, in essence, is aimed at staging clichéd speech, which does not contribute to full profile linguistic training of a law student.

The second problem, from our point of view, is more fundamental. Speech training of students of legal specialties is carried out, as a rule, within the framework of the first year of undergraduate studies in the process of mastering the discipline "Fundamentals of business and public communication” (the exact name may vary depending on particular university). No more than one semester is allotted for the development of educational material, and knowledge is assessed mainly by students passing a test, not an exam. That there are teachers, with all their desire, do not have opportunities for high-quality and a systematic presentation of the basics of literate speech, since they are limited in teaching hours.

In the direction of teaching foreign languages, the key problem is the presence or absence of motivation among law students to study them. Main the motivating factor is the demand for knowledge of foreign languages [3, p.88].

You can talk about “general development” for as long as you like, but, in essence, knowledge students need a foreign language for: 1) work in international companies, mainly consulting ones, whose project activities involve interaction with native speakers of foreign languages; 2) implementation of projects on behalf of and in the interests of Russian companies abroad. Accordingly, if a student connects their professional future, say, with work in a regional environmental prosecutor's office, then he will not have the motivation to learn foreign languages, and in In this case, the attempts of teachers to form such motivations, including the use of "language portfolios" [1, p.27], even with a high level of their training will turn out to be failures.

In conclusion, we outline the main contours of solving problems that can be face teachers in their professional work when teaching students speech disciplines. First, a radical increase in the number of study hours. Secondly, teaching foreign languages to law students is worth pursue on a differentiated basis, depending on their motivation.

Список литературы

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