Perfecting and optimizing the operating mechanism and management methods of public art taking China and the United States as examples

Ян Вэньхуэй – студент бакалавриата по специальности "Публичное искусство" Академии изящных искусств Ляонинского педагогического университета (Китай).

Аннотация: Современный Китай в последние десятилетия переживает беспрецедентное улучшение как социально-культурной сферы, так и качества жизни в целом. Поэтому растет и интерес людей к публичному искусству. Паблик-арт зарождался для целей облагораживания окружающей среды, городских пространств. Теперь же он трансформировался в самостоятельный вид искусства, объединяющий общественный дух, политическую значимость, культурные коннотации и общественные функции, имеющий социальную и культурную ценность. В настоящее время в Китае и во многих развивающихся странах отсутствуют единые и четкие правила управления паблик-артом, профессиональное участие в этом культурном явлении. В нашей статье будут проанализированы и сопоставлены истоки, механизмы работы и методы управления паблик-артом в Китае и США, предложены способы совершенствования работы в этом направлении.

Ключевые слова: паблик-арт, механизм работы паблик-арта, управляющая организация, план строительства.

Public art, a seed buried in the modern cities of western developed countries, has evolved and brewed, and has bloomed bright flowers all over the world today. At the moment when China's scientific socialism and urbanization are entering a new stage, public art has gradually changed from a brand-new concept to a demand for urban upgrading and development.

Publicity is the key to exploring the connotation of public art, and public power is the basis for the existence of public art. Public art is not defined in terms of art genre, artistic style, and aesthetic category, but a way of social culture and the public, a comprehensive art that serves the public. It does not simply rely on the existence of artists or designers, but an art concept with sociological characteristics that involves the participation of multiple institutions, fields, and professions. It not only has space sharing, but also has a political meaning. awareness of public democracy. Starting from a single beautification of the environment, it gradually diverges and establishes a corresponding connection with all aspects of social life. Public art has also become a symbol of the openness of social democratic political life and the ability of citizens to participate in public affairs. The government has participated in the cultural construction of public spaces, enhancing the participation of the public and artists. As the leading force of public art, the government participates in the planning and construction of public art, and formulates relevant policies and regulations to ensure the smooth development of public art.

The English equivalent of mechanism, mechanism, was first used in mechanical engineering, referring to the structure and working principle of a machine. The birth of the word mechanism is very vivid, just like a large machine needs parts with different mechanisms, which interact to produce functions. With the advancement of theory and the change of concepts, the term mechanism has been applied to various fields, and now it has become a widely used professional term. Mechanisms connect various parts of things in a certain way of operation, so that they can coordinate and function, and then they can play a role. Whether the mechanism can play a role depends on the dependence and constraints of all parties.

The concept of "mechanism" can be applied to the field of art, and can also be applied to the operating mechanism of public art. As one of the important soft powers of urban development, public art has become an important part of urban construction. It is a way of cultural construction and an important means and form to achieve the goals of political, economic and social development.

As an integral part of public cultural undertakings, public art must not only satisfy the public's needs materially, but also satisfy the public's pursuit of spiritual life in terms of spiritual needs. The development of public art requires a good and sound public art operation mechanism and related management methods. The operating mechanism of public art is the carrier of the implementation and construction of public art. It is the basis for the development of public art and the prerequisite for ensuring the implementation of public policies. The operating mechanism of public art mainly includes four aspects: public art organization, policy, funds, and management, specifically including the establishment of management institutions, fund-raising methods, organizational construction, and management systems, etc., to provide necessary guarantee conditions and policy support for the development of public art.

The role of public art in cultural policy varies according to social and political contexts, and has different spheres and roles in different countries and regions. In western developed countries, public art is a policy system combining "top-down" and "bottom-up". The development and improvement of public art undertakings shall be promoted by the government. The government mainly promotes and guides social forces to participate in it through legislation, planning and other means. At the same time, it also uses mass media to supervise public opinion, so as to enhance the public's aesthetic ability and awareness, and meet the growing needs of the public for cultural life.

The meaning of "mechanism" in western developed countries is mainly reflected in a series of organizational mechanisms established by them for system planning, operation guarantee, management and supervision. "Mechanism" is the most important link in the government, but it is not the only important link. It plays a central role in the cultural policy system. From the perspective of policy, "mechanism" is the guarantee of the effect of policy implementation, and "mechanism" also reflects the quality of policy itself to a certain extent. "Mechanism" is a mode of operation, which can also be applied in the field of management, which is of great significance to urban construction and development, and plays a very important role in ensuring the safety of residents and environmental sanitation.

In the United States, the Kennedy administration expounded the positioning of art in national interests in the report "Art and National Government". The U.S. government attaches great importance to the role of cultural undertakings in American society, including urban planning, public policy, local government management, arts administration and other elements. But seldom directly intervene in specific cultural and artistic activities. The full development of public art in the United States is largely due to a set of effective and complete operating mechanisms to support its development. Public art with distinct levels, rich content, comprehensive coverage, and strong operability constitutes a solid and stable operating framework for American public art, which is reflected in many aspects of public art management system, financial system, and program design.

The operation mechanism of public art in the United States mainly covers six aspects: system planning mechanism, works selection mechanism, talent construction mechanism, social exchange mechanism, rights protection mechanism, and financial management mechanism. They can be divided into power mechanism and operation mechanism. The construction of the dynamic mechanism is more about mobilizing the motives of various groups of people through the construction of laws, policies, systems, and external systems of organizations, such as the support of laws and regulations, the preferential tax system, the guidance of government cultural policies, and the small to fairness. The unique work selection mechanism, the open talent construction mechanism, etc. are all effective and targeted specific methods. The development of its operating mechanism is a dynamic process, in which the elements and relationships are constantly changing, whether it is the government, the market, the collective, or individuals may have "failures". Therefore, the guarantee of the healthy operation of the public art operating mechanism is placed on A single element is unreliable, but we should try to achieve the balance of the proportions of the various elements of the mechanism, and seek the benign operation of the mechanism in a balanced state.

As China's urban construction is entering a new stage and society is rapidly progressing and developing, many cities in my country have begun to focus on strengthening the construction of public space. From a social perspective, public art is a comprehensive reflection of social life and the spiritual needs of citizens; from a political perspective, it is an indispensable part of the political system and spiritual civilization construction of the people in charge of the country; from an economic perspective, it is an integral part of the urban economy , The objective needs and important components of cultural construction and development; at the international level, it is the embodiment of the dissemination and promotion of public art, the enhancement of international image and status, the demonstration of national cultural soft power, and the display of the image of China. In terms of policy, public art also plays a form and function of cultural construction, and plays a very important role in the policy system.

However, at present, urban sculptures in many cities in China are less embedded in urban planning, regular fund allocation has not set up financing sub-items for urban sculptures, and there is no clear guideline, and most of them have insufficient public art planning , Insufficient enforcement and other issues. These problems make public art unable to be effectively used and meet the needs of the public, and it is also not conducive to improving the overall social and cultural level and the quality of life of residents. To solve these problems, it is necessary to build a good operating mechanism and management methods in order to better play its value and role.

Shanghai is the first metropolis in China to form a complete urban sculpture planning and administrative structure. With the support of the policy of opening to the outside world, Shanghai quickly caught up with this global and national trend. Shanghai's urban sculpture planning system retains the distinctive features of the Chinese urban planning system. The structure of the system is divided into two layers, It is the municipal level and the district level. These two levels of urban sculpture planning have different functions and institutional arrangements. At present, the guidelines for urban sculpture planning are formulated by the Municipal Planning Bureau, while the sub-items and management of funds are managed by the Shanghai Urban Planning and Design Research Institute. analyze. Then according to the survey results, optimization suggestions are put forward for relevant policies and implemented in urban sculpture planning. Relevant departments cooperate closely, including cooperation support and cooperation at multiple levels such as planning and design units, fund management units and their financial departments. The operation mechanism of Shanghai urban sculpture is typical and representative to a certain extent. Its operation mechanism is continuously improved and optimized under the influence of various factors, which provides a certain reference for the development of Chinese public art. This also fully reflects its initiative in the development of public art. This kind of initiative can not only improve the operational efficiency of public art in terms of mechanism, but also lay a good foundation for its mechanism construction.

The operation of urban public art is affected and restricted by various aspects, and these factors also have a great influence on the development of public art. Therefore, whether the mechanism can play a role still needs to be considered and weighed in many ways. The construction of China's public art operation mechanism needs to learn from foreign experience, but it also needs to combine domestic conditions and build an operation mechanism suitable for its own development according to local conditions.

China's public art management mechanism urgently needs to establish relevant laws and regulations to protect and inherit historical public art works and avoid excessive commercialization that puts interests first, resulting in loss of works. The public art style and ideas in Chinese history also need our attention and protection, so that we can give full play to the role of the public art management mechanism in many fields and aspects, such as the promotion of urban characteristic culture, the protection of property rights of related works, etc., which is beneficial to Cultural construction is also conducive to the cultivation and education of talents in related industries. It is recommended to establish public art-related committees and foundations at the provincial and municipal levels, and require the participation of local university history-related professionals. This will not only protect existing historical public art works, establish relevant organizations, but also be open to the general public. It is suggested that attracting investment and industry development can also lead local non-governmental associations and groups to participate in urban construction and the creation of public art works, and carry out long-term planning and management of the city's public art undertakings. Relying on the help of the local government, the opinions of urban residents are regularly collected and summarized and reviewed to ensure that the public art works in the city are close to the people, prevent the elites who deviate from the public from representing the masses, and prevent public art works from becoming personal works of art.

The construction of public art operation mechanism needs to be established under the background of scientific socialism and urban construction and development, and reflect the characteristics of public art itself in specific practice, so as to meet the needs of China's modern urban construction and development as a starting point. In urban construction projects, the design unit and the design scheme review department should jointly formulate the overall planning of public environmental facilities to ensure that the urban construction project is well integrated with the lives of citizens. The development of public art is inseparable from the cooperation of various aspects, the management support of the local government, the development and publicity of related education, the coordination of the opinions of the public, and the guarantee of funds. Instead of advocating westernized management system and borrowing doctrine, we should explore the correct way of existence and coexistence of various multi-faceted management mechanisms in the process of gradually improving and adapting to local government management.


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