The problems of the socialization of young people in educational institutions

Васильева Елена Владимировна – преподаватель Северо-Западного филиала Российского государственного университета правосудия.

Матвиенко Софья Васильевна – старший преподаватель Северо-Западного филиала Российского государственного университета правосудия.

Аннотация: В данной статье рассматриваются особенности социализации молодежи в образовательных организациях. Сущность социализации молодежи состоит в том, что социализация - это двусторонний процесс, в котором главной задачей молодых людей становится приобщение к социуму, оставаясь при этом целостной личностью.

Abstract: This article discusses the features of the socialization of young people in educational organizations. The essence of the socialization of young people is that socialization is a two-way process in which the main task of young people is to become involved in society while remaining a complete person.

Ключевые слова: социализация, молодежь, образовательные организации, адаптация, социум, целостная личность.

Keywords: socialization, youth, educational organizations, adaptation, society, a complete person.

“Socializing is the broadest concept that characterizes the process of personality forming, it presupposes not so much the conscious assimilation of ready-made frames and methods of social life (thoughts, values, norms), but the growth of one’s orientation, one’s lifestyle, and the social experience,” says Nadezhda Filippovna Golovanova (The Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences).[2, c.16]

Socializing in high school, according to Marina Mikhailovna Shulga (The Doctor of Social Sciences), is the most important nexus in the training system “capable of ensuring the formation of a novel type of personality that optimally fits the current stage of social growth.” “Socialization of students during their studies at a higher educational institution is learning, mastering, and assimilation by a student of the specific social-professional roles, norms, and values built up and accepted in a community in a particular higher education institution necessary for performing future social and professional roles of a specialist, and the formation on this basis of a certain social type of personality as a scheme of its socially and professionally important qualities.” [7, c.114]

The main stages of the socialization of young people include the following important procedures:

  • Primary: the process of self-awareness as an individual and assimilation of norms and values.
  • Secondary: the restructuring of the individual during his stay in a social group, the desire to accommodate into the environment of the modern community, and to develop communication skills.

One aspect of socialization has to do with social adjustment. Social adaptation is adapting a person to a changing social environment through various social means: he assimilates the sustainable means of the new surroundings; he takes the values of the social surroundings over. The measures of the adaptation success include assimilation of social roles and high social status.

The psychological factors, which slow the adjustment of students, are:

  1. The overall emotional stress.
  2. Searching for the best time to work and rest in the new circumstances.
  3. A lack of psychological preparation for choosing a profession.
  4. A lack of independent study skills, and inability to take notes.
  5. A low social position within the group.
  6. A lack of psychological and domestic comfort in student dormitories.

The high degree of student adaptation shows the next features:

  • Students maintain a positive position towards the educational system,
  • Study material is easy to handle for students,
  • An ability to run errands without external control,
  • Young people get benefits from a favorable status within a group.

If students have a low degree of adaptation, it should be noted:

  • Students treat the educational organization in a negative or indifferent way,
  • Young people complain about poor health,
  • The Code of Conduct may be violated,
  • Students require supervision and support.

The problems of interaction between education and socialization relate to science. Over the past few years, there has been a significant expansion of research into socialization issues. Despite the existence of diversified, multidimensional, and sometimes contradictory studies, scientists believe that we cannot consider the socialization process in isolation from the impact and interaction with the environment.

Anatoli Viktorovich Mudrik (the Soviet and Russian Pedagogical scholar) identified the key elements of socialization by combining them into three groups:

  • Macroeconomic factors affect the socialization of all people on the planet or vast groups of people living in certain areas;
  • Meso factors influence the socialization of large groups of individuals identified by nationality, place, and type of settlement;
  • Micro factors stimulate a direct impact on specific people or a group of peers, or micro-social educational organizations.” [5, c.147]

We cannot consider youth problems in isolation from social and global world processes. Since youth is not a self-developing system, it is included in all forms of the social organizations and relations of society as an integral constituent of it.

Socio-psychological problems arise in a young person's interaction with society and are associated with the formation of youth self-awareness, self-determination, and growth. Youth may face such issues as:

  • An annual reduction of budgetary places at Universities;
  • The emergence of a growing number of subcultures (hippies, Goths, bikers...), which rarely get along with each other and engage in violent confrontation;
  • A lack of free educational services required during vacations.

Natural and cultural problems also affect the socializing of youth in educational institutions. A particular concern is the distancing of youth from the spiritual culture. This is facilitated by the politics of mass media, which introduces immorality, violence, and contempt for the profession, work, and family.

Sociocultural problems of socialization make it difficult for young people to introduce a person to a certain level of culture, a particular set of knowledge, skills, and abilities. Here, young people gain an inactive «social status» - «student» and the development of a new social role starts.

I conducted a monitoring study of the first-year students of our University, which was based on the recognition of the special significance of the assessments that students apply to the educational process.

The questionnaire includes several questions. Some of them are the students’ evaluation in teaching and learning processes (their overall satisfaction with the University; the students’ self-esteem and the academic success); the usage of the electronic resources (the personal students’ Cabinet, the library electronic catalog); an extracurricular activity (the students’ participation in scientific conferences and competitions); the students' opinion on their opportunities in the labor market.

1

Student’s evaluations are dominated with a high degree of satisfaction with the academic studies. Young people believe that the quality of education meets their expectations. The students who actively participate in extracurricular activities have slightly higher satisfaction with the University than those who do not take part in extracurricular activities. The upshots of the students’ survey identify one weakness —individual support of the students with insufficient training is required.

Among the reasons that hinder the successful study of students should be noted their laziness and reluctance to learn.

We should note that most students like their student group. This is an important component of satisfaction with the University both as an educational organization and as a place of formation of the young person’s personality.

Educational organizations as social institutions have the role of social protection and social mobility. It gives a possibility to get a good job and improve young people’s social status. Today's youth seek a higher degree to succeed in life. The socialization should meet modern requirements; it should consider the current trends. The concept of socialization, the teaching process should contribute to the growth of the young person’s personality.

Summing up, we can conclude that socialization is a two-way process. On the one hand, it is a process of assimilation of the social experience by a young person entering the social environment, the system of social connections; on the other hand, it is a process of active reproduction of the system of social connections of an individual because of his dynamic activity and enthusiastic inclusion in the social environment.

Список литературы

  1. Голованова Н.Ф. Педагогика: учебник и практикум для СПО. Изд. 2-е, перераб. и доп. М. : Издательство Юрайт, 2016. — 377 с.
  2. Голованова Н.Ф. Социализация и воспитание ребенка. Учебное пособие для студентов высших учебных заведений. СПб.: Речь, 2004. – 272 с.
  3. Мудрик А. В. Социальная педагогика: Учеб. для студ. пед. вузов / Под ред. В.А. Сластенина. - 3-е изд., испр. и доп. - М.: Издательский центр «Академия», 2000. - 200 с.
  4. Социологически словарь. М., 1996.
  5. Сластенин В.А. и др. Педагогика: Учеб. пособие для студ. высш. пед. учеб. заведений / В. А. Сластенин, И. Ф. Исаев, Е. Н. Шиянов; Под ред. В.А. Сластенина. -- М.: Издательский центр "Академия", 2002. - 576 с.
  6. Шульга М.М. Социализация молодежи: социокультурный подход //Вопросы культурологи. 2006. № 8. С. 6-14.
  7. Шульга М.М. Социализирующая функция высшей школы и развитие российского общества // Вестник Ставропольского государственного университета. 2006. Выпуск 46.
  8. Шульга М.М. Особенности процесса социализации в высшей школе // Вестник Томского государственного университета. №287. 2005. С.114
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