"Научный аспект №1-2019" - Технические науки

Анализ развития архитектурного образа жилых зданий Астаны

Садыкова Сара Шангереевна – кандидат архитектуры, профессор кафедры Ахитектуры Евразийского национального университета им. Л.Н. Гумилева.

Табешова Дана Аскаровна – магистрант кафедры Ахитектуры Евразийского национального университета им. Л.Н. Гумилева.

Аннотация: В статье рассматривается эволюция развития архитектурного образа жилой застройки Астаны. Также исследуется современное состояние типологии жилых зданий. Практика демонстрирует архитектурное многообразие форм современного жилища. Данное исследование направлено на выявление новых перспективных направлений развития архитектурного образа жилых зданий для условий города Астаны.

Ключевые слова: Типология жилых зданий, индивидуальное жилищное строительство, целинные и залежные земли, Ленинградские дома, симбиоз и метаболизм в архитектуре, высокие технологии.

Analysis of the development of architectural image of residential buildings in Astana

Sadykova Sara Shangereevna – Architecture Department in Eurasian National University after L.N. Gumilyev.

Tabeshova Dana Askarovna – Architecture Department in Eurasian National University after L.N. Gumilyev.

Abstract: In this article is considered evolution of development of an architectural image of a residential development of Astana. It is also investigated the current state of the typology of residential buildings. The practice demonstrates the architectural diversity of the forms of modern housing. This study is aimed at identifying new promising areas of development of the architectural image of residential buildings for the conditions of the city of Astana.

Keywords: Typology of residential buildings, individual residential building, virgin and fallow lands, Leningrad’s houses, symbiosis and metabolism in architecture, high-tech.

Introduction. Over the past decades, there have been tremendous changes in the architectural appearance of Astana, once a small provincial town, creating an inexpressive architectural image. Before gaining the status of the capital and the current architectural image precedes its own history of development. The development of the Soviet period creates an image of the environment, typical of most small cities in the post-Soviet space. This is due to the geographical position, peculiarity of the development, functioning of the city, etc.

The middle of the 20th century is one of the most significant stages in the history of the city. This is due to the development of virgin lands and the formation of the Soviet housing architecture, which was completely dependent on the construction industry, on its capacities and capabilities. During the years of development of “virgin and fallow lands”, Akmolinsk found itself in the geographical center of a huge “virgin land” and became its administrative center [4]. There is a significant increase in the population of the tiny town. All these circumstances demanded that new adjustments be urgently made to the layout of the city, to build new residential quarters.

Due to the beginning of the great economic and social reforms in the Soviet Union, there is a revision of the architectural and construction policy of the country, which could not but affect the architectural appearance of the city. Districts and streets of Tselinograd are built from 5-stored panel and block houses of industrial manufacturing. The city was built by Leningrad (the development of model building projects began in Leningrad even before the war), Moscow and local builders. Leningrad architects brought their project of a house without balconies, today they are called "Leningrad’s houses" (Fig.1.).

Fig.1.Tselinograd. Victory Avenue (photo 1969). Photo by D. Slascheva.

The current architectural image of the young capital is a new approach to the formation of the urban environment, which is based on a symbiosis of European and Asian cultures. The author's philosophical concept of symbiosis and metabolism in architecture (by K. Kurokawa) is the basis of the new buildings in Astana, where the city is considered as a living organism, coexisting with nature, without harming it. Despite all the creativity and innovation of the idea, as it turned out, the architect did not take into account the rapid growth of the development of Astana. His master plan required adjustment. According to the approved draft adjustment of the general plan (NIPI of Astana), the city is supposed to be developed as an administrative, business, scientific, educational, cultural and sport in Central Asia. It should be noted that at the present stage of the construction of the city (especially in its historical part) an increase in the density of buildings is observed. This leads to undesirable results: a reduction in the rate of greening, playgrounds for games, playgrounds for recreation; insufficient parking spaces.

In the urban environment can be traced the formation of a new aesthetics of residential buildings. Improving the quality level has become possible due to competition in the housing market, with the modernization of industrial technologies that has begun and the use of new building materials. Under these conditions, the typology changes. The changes relate to both the functional planning structure of the dwelling and the external appearance of residential buildings.

Modern architectural practice of housing design and construction represents a great variety - this is due to the formation of a typology in the aspect of time.

In the 60-70s of the last century, the building of the city was carried out mainly by 4-5 stored houses with a predominance of large-panel construction. The houses were planned taking into account the best orientation to the cardinal points, in relation to the prevailing winds, taking into account the terrain relief [1]. Combined into residential groups, they formed closed courtyard spaces to neutralize the constantly blowing winds. Tower-type residential buildings, i.e. The 9-stored buildings, like high-rise buildings, were located in various parts of the districts, in areas with good prospects. They had to bring a revival and coloring to the building. The architecture of residential complexes and individual residential buildings of recent years compares favorably with the previously erected objects by professional elaboration and imagery of architectural solutions [2]. The number of floors of residential buildings rises sharply.

In the 70s, similar high-rise residential buildings with inexpressive architecture were built, but already at this time architects began to build in and attach various premises serving the population. During these years, a typical series of 9-stored residential buildings prevailed. In the early 80s, a complex of multi-stored residential buildings was built, located on both sides of Republic Avenue, consisting of two pairs of 12-stored and 9-stored single-section residential houses on an individual project. At that time, this complex stood out from the same type of urban development, both in number of floors and architecture. In the mid-80s, similar houses on the Student Avenue near the monument dedicated to those who died in Afghanistan surrendered to exploitation. It should be noted that in the 80s high-rise housing construction is gaining momentum. In total, 51 multi-stored residential buildings were built in these years, mainly 9-stored, in some cases 10-12-stored.

When the country gained independence in 1991, there was a decline in the construction of multi-stored housing, which lasted until the transfer of the capital in 1997 from Almaty to Astana. This led to dramatic changes in the development of high-rise housing in Astana. After that, the city begins its metropolitan development, which differs from the development of other cities in the country. Primarily individual single multi-stored residential buildings are being built, the first of them are two 26-stored residential buildings along Bogembay Avenue.

In 2000-2001, the development of the planning structure and development of the city was determined in accordance with the master plan approved by the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The program of this stage included the commencement of work on the formation of a new planning structure of the city, the active demolition of existing dilapidated buildings and the construction of new facilities in their place that meet the capital standards and requirements. Along with domestic construction companies and organizations, foreign construction firms began to take an increasingly active part in the construction of Astana.

In 2006–2007, anticipatory indicators of population growth rates emerged, the emergence of new conditions and opportunities due to the dynamics of the country's economic and social progress. They gave the architects and city planners of the capital a number of problematic tasks related to the adjustment of the current master plan. Taking into account the analysis of the results of urban planning activities for the implementation of the master plan, bans were imposed on unreasonable sealing construction inside the old part of the city, there is a mandatory design for parking lots for at least one parking space per apartment as part of new residential complexes under construction. Established stringent requirements for compliance with the normative density of buildings and insolation of residential apartments and territories.

In order to create conditions ensuring an interconnected solution for the improvement and development of the city’s territory according to a single project, it was decided to switch from the “spot” development of local areas to the integrated development of a quarter or most of it by a single investor-developer. An example of such an integrated approach to building up the territory of the capital is the residential complexes “HighVill” and Grand Astana, built with all social, cultural and leisure facilities necessary to serve the neighborhood residents.

A striking expression of this style is the residential complex "Northern Lights". The complex was erected in the center of the “new” city (left bank), on Water-Green Boulevard, commissioned in 2008. This is a multifunctional complex, which embodies the advanced achievements of architecture, design, construction and engineering equipment. The complex consists of three residential buildings of 34, 39 and 44 floors, combined with a public purpose, which houses the facilities of the service system - parking, restaurants, bars, coffee shops, fitness and SPA centers, boutiques, beauty salons and high fashion, jewelry, perfume shops, etc. Beautifully landscaped area, children's playgrounds, walking alleys, decorative trees create a unique atmosphere of comfort.

Another vivid example of the high-tech style is the administrative and residential complex "On the Water-Green Boulevard" located in the business center of Astana, on the left bank of the Ishim River, near Bayterek. The complex consists of residential blocks of variable number of floors (from 3 to 30), where the highest part of the dynamically growing composition is oriented to the north, thus solving the issues of insolation. Almost the entire courtyard is occupied by a park area. The project of a residential complex received a diploma from the International Association of Unions of Architects of the CIS countries of the 1st degree.

The construction of a multifunctional complex "Abu Dhabi Plaza", which will complement the business center in the style of "high-tech". The complex is located on the left bank of the Ishim River, near the square and Bayterek.

Today’s the highest building in Central Asia is Abu Dhabi Plaza. The height of the building is 362 meters. "Abu Dhabi Plaza" - consists of a main seventy-five stored building, and several towers, united around.

An important place in the architecture of new residential complexes in Astana is occupied by the search for shaping opportunities based on a regional factor. Currently, a number of complexes have been built that demonstrate a modern interpretation of national stylistics and color. Among them are residential buildings along Abay Avenue and the Republic, a residential complex "Arman" on the Yesil Embankment. The decor elements of the facades, the characteristic dome completion, clearly demonstrate the search for architects in this direction.

One of the last largest buildings, characterizing the diversity of stylistic trends in the formation of the architecture of residential buildings in Astana, is the “Triumph of Astana” complex, built on the left bank of the city. The pursuit of plastic enrichment of facades based on traditional classical forms was central to the solution of the architectural and artistic image of the complex. Here are widely used order elements, pilasters, horizontal decorative belts, stucco decoration. As urban accents, the crowning elements of the complex are solved in the form of towers with spires. In general, the architectural image of the building copies the eclectic architecture of the seven high-rise buildings in Moscow, built in the late 40s - first half of the 50s of the last century. Currently, the residential complex "Triumph of Astana" has become an architectural landmark and one of the main high-altitude accents of the new capital of Kazakhstan.

Among the last buildings made in the neoclassical style, stands out the residential complex "Nursaya", built on a water-green boulevard. It is also characterized by an appeal to the traditional elements of classical architecture, but in a new way, thanks to the use of modern building materials, such as, for example, porcelain stoneware, modern stained glass.

Thus, the architecture of new residential complexes in Astana is shaped in the direction of contradictory trends, such as innovative high-tech, functionalism, neo-classicism, and an eclectic mixture of various historical styles. However, there are a few examples of the search for national style, expressed in the use of elements of traditional Kazakh symbols in decorating the exterior and interior appearance of residential buildings. In general, the architecture of residential complexes in Kazakhstan, trying to answer the questions of our time, is developing multifaceted, to put it in its stylistic diversity.

In the architectural image of residential buildings in Astana at the present stage, we can emphasize the following features: style diversity, high and increased number of stored of buildings, complexity, monumentality, multi-functionality, etc. Among the variety of styles in the architecture of residential buildings in Astana, the high-tech style stands out. Hi-tech originated in the depths of Western European architecture and found its use in the 60s of the XX century. The main characteristics of architecture in the high-tech style include the use of simple lines and shapes, the extensive use of glass, plastics and metal, tubular metal structures.


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  2. Lukyanova L.G., Tsybukh V.I. Recreational complexes: Educational allowance. “Vischa school” 2004. 966-642-129-1, p. 33.
  3. Dubitsky A.F. City on Ishim
  4. Chekaev F.M. Abstract "Sources and evolution of the architecture of Astana (Akmola) 1830-1991."
  5. Samoilov K.I. Abstract “Architecture of Kazakhstan of the XX century. The development of morphogenesis.

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