УДК 004.9:658.310.07

Methods for establishing the information systems of an enterprise

Безруков Сергей Юрьевич – студент Тихоокеанского государственного университета.

Уманец Ирина Фаритовна – кандидат социологических наук, доцент Тихоокеанского государственного университета.

Аннотация: В статье рассматриваются современные методики построения информационных систем (ИС) предприятия и их интеграция в качестве средства оптимизации функционирования внутренних процессов и коммуникаций. Информационная система выступает как ядро внутренних и внешних процессов, повышающее эффективность деятельности предприятий. Рассмотрение методик построения ИС позволит определить их значимость и значение в структуре предприятия.

Abstract: The paper deals with the modern methods of establishing the information systems (IS) of an enterprise and their integration as a means of optimizing the functioning of internal processes and communications. The information system acts as the core of internal and external processes that increase the efficiency of enterprises. Consideration of the methods for establishing IS will determine their importance and significance in the structure of the enterprise.

Ключевые слова: информационные системы, методика, предприятие, управление, интеграция.

Keywords: information systems, methodology, enterprise, management, integration.

An enterprise information system (ISP) is any type of information system that improves the functions of an enterprise's business processes through integration. This usually means offering a high quality of service, working with large amounts of data, and ability to support some large and possibly complex organizations or businesses. All the parts and at all levels of the enterprise can use the ISP. 

The enterprise’s information systems have both operational (transaction processing) and informational (storage, data retrieval, and reporting) goals.

  1. Operational goals tend to focus on efficiency. When done correctly, corporate information systems make it easier for people to complete their work in a timely and accurate manner. They also allow the company to standardize and optimize its operations. In contrast, poor-quality enterprise systems can actually increase workloads, cause frustration among the people who use them, and cause costly disruptions.
  2. The Information goals of corporate systems focus on efficiency. The Institutional data should be available for decision makers in a form that combines data with the context. The quality of information is more important than the amount of data.[1] Businesses need to achieve information flexibility by using the reliable information as a strategic asset for a sustainable competitive advantage. However, the transformation into an enterprise with information support by implementing an efficient, optimized and extensible corporate information environment does not happen by chance. That is why the companies need an information agenda - an integrated, enterprise-wide approach to information strategy and planning. This allows the organizations to achieve the information flexibility to provide a sustainable competitive advantage by accelerating the pace at which the companies can start managing information across the enterprise.

In contrast to the previous planning approaches that used to be usually appropriate for the individual applications or business functions, the information agenda should provide a comprehensive overview of the information needed to include the entire value chain. It should include new technologies, an ever-growing portfolio of business needs, and the impact of new channels (such as social networks or blogs). The information program must also take into account the significant investment and the cost associated with the existing systems. The challenge is how to combine the existing information environment with new and evolving technologies and processes to create a flexible framework for the future. New information management techniques, such as master data management (MDM), information services in a service-oriented architecture (SOA) environment, and cloud computing, provide opportunities for further facilitating both the breadth and depth of capabilities required for a true enterprise information architecture.

The information agenda should include a strategic vision and roadmap for the organizations:

  • Define and prioritize the corporate information projects in accordance with the business strategy and based on providing real business value.
  • Determine which data and content is the most important to your organization.
  • Determine how and when this information should be available to support the business decisions.
  • Determine what organizational capabilities and government practices are necessary to provide and access this data.
  • Determine what management processes are necessary to implement and support the plan.
  • Align the use of information with the organization's business processes.

- Create and deploy an enterprise information architecture that meets the current and future needs.

The information system is becoming a Central forum where business and it leaders begin to seriously consider their information environment. This allows the management to start formulating a common vision, develop a comprehensive corporate information strategy, and ultimately develop the detailed plans and roadmaps needed to deliver the significant business value through real optimizing the use and power of the corporate information.

The key to creating a successful corporate information strategy is to match it exactly to your business strategy. However, the development process is often just as important as the strategy it develops. This process allows business leaders to review, evaluate, coordinate, prioritize, and agree on an information vision and a corresponding roadmap. It should encourage business leaders to actively build consensus, sponsor strategy, and manage their organizations accordingly. This includes "setting an example" and, in some cases, delaying projects that benefit managers ' own functions and departments in order to speed up the implementation of the others that are in the Corporation's best interests. To this end, one should be very careful when defining the approach to strategy development and ensuring that the right decision-makers are involved in its development and implementation.

The Systems vary in size and technological complexity, as well as in the organizational tasks they tend to solve. To address these differences, a number of approaches to establishing the systems have been developed. There are several methods for establishing an enterprise IP: the life cycle of traditional systems, prototyping, end-user development, application software packages, and outsourcing.

  1. The life cycle of traditional systems. The system lifecycle is the oldest method of establishing the information systems. The lifecycle methodology is a systematic approach to setting up a system that divides the system development into some formal stages. The system development specialists have different opinions about how to separate the stages of establishing the systems, but they roughly correspond to the stages of the system development.
  2. Prototyping consists of quick and inexpensive creating an experimental system for evaluation by the end users. By interacting with the prototype, the users can better understand their information requirements. The users employ the prototype approved as a template for creating the final system. A prototype is a working version of the information system or the part of it, but intended only for a preliminary model. After commissioning, the prototype will be refined until it exactly meets the requirements of the users. Once the design is complete, it transforms the prototype into a fine-tuned production system. system.
  3. Development for the end users. The end users can develop some types of the information systems without any official technical assistance or with a little support called the end-user development. A series of software tools classified as fourth-generation languages made it possible .The fourth-generation languages are software tools that allow the end users to create the reports or develop the software applications with or without any minimal technical assistance. Some of these fourth-generation tools also improve the productivity of the professional programmers.
  4. Software packages. Over the past few decades, many systems have turned up because of an application software package. Many applications are common to all the business organizations, such as payroll, accounts receivable, General Ledger, or inventory management. For such universal functions with standard processes that do not change much over time, the generalized system will meet the requirements of many organizations. If a software package can meet most of the organization's requirements, the company doesn't need to write its own software. The company can save time and money by using the pre-written, pre-developed and tested programs from the package. The package providers provide most of the system's ongoing maintenance and support, including improvements to keep the system up to date with current technical and technical requirements.
  5. If the firm does not want to use its internal resources to create or operate the information systems, it can outsource the work to an external organization that specializes in providing these services. The application service providers (ASPS) are a form of outsourcing. The subscriber companies will use the software and computer hardware provided by ASP as a technical platform for their systems. In the other form of outsourcing, a company may hire an external vendor to design and build software for its system, but that company will manage the system on its own computers. Outsourcing has become popular because some organizations consider it more valuable than their own computer center or the information systems staff. The outsourcing service provider benefits from the economies of scale and additional core competencies that would be difficult for a firm that does not specialize in information technology services to replicate.[2]

Thus, from the very beginning, the management and business management must develop a comprehensive shared vision for their corporate information environment. This vision describes a long-term, achievable environment of the future, documents the benefits and opportunities from a business perspective, and shows the methods of collecting and using the information by the enterprise. This vision should be based on and aligned with the business strategy. In this sense, the information vision never develops independently, but always has links with the business strategy through its goals and the performance indicators. It includes operational, analytical, planning, and contextual information and designs to benefit almost everyone in the enterprise, from the top management to the line employees and from the automated systems to the end customers and suppliers. The alignment and display of business metadata and technical metadata, which is a key aspect of an enterprise's information architecture, provides this relationship between the information vision and the business strategy.

References

  1. Borodakiy Yu. V., Lobodinsky Yu. G. Evolution of information systems (current state and prospects). - Moscow: Hotline-Telecom, 2018. - 368 p.
  2. Maiga A. S. The Effects of Information Technology Integration on Manufacturing Financial Performance: The Role of Cost Control Systems / / Advances in Management Accounting. - 2016. - p. 183-206.

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