Environmental situation of wastewater in Karaganda region

Жандаулет Сабина Нурдаулеткызы – магистрант Карагандинского университета им. Е. А. Букетова.

Abstract: This article describes the environmental situation of wastewater in the Karaganda region. Waste water pollution by large enterprises, when the discharge of contaminated waste water from metallurgical plants in the reservoir increases the amount of suspended particles. Discharges of industrial and municipal enterprises that have been treated at treatment facilities and emergency discharges are sources of pollution of water bodies and the environment.

Аннотация: В данной статье описывается экологическая ситуация со сточными водами в Карагандинской области. Загрязнение сточных вод крупными предприятиями, когда при сбросе загрязненных сточных вод с металлургических заводов в водохранилище увеличивается количество взвешенных частиц. Сбросы промышленных и коммунальных предприятий, прошедшие очистку на очистных сооружениях, а также аварийные сбросы являются источниками загрязнения водных объектов и окружающей среды.

Keywords: waste water, water resource, industrial ecology.

Ключевые слова: сточные воды, водные ресурсы, промышленная экология.

Karaganda region is a large industrial center of Kazakhstan with a high concentration of environmentally dirty industrial production. The development of productive forces in our region has long been carried out without taking into account the environmental consequences, resulting in a tense environmental situation.

A big problem in the field of protection and use of water resources. Total annual water resource of the region is about 3.4 billion. cubic meters, and water abstraction now up to 1.6 billion cubic meters. per year. The amount of recycled and recycled water supply is about 45% of the fresh water intake. The water sources of the region are the Nura River with the main tributaries Sherubai-Nura and Sokyr, the Sarys River with tributaries Kara-Kengir and Zhezda, the Irtysh-Karaganda Channel, the Ishim River and Lake Balkhash.

Ferrous metallurgy is one of the largest consumers of water. Its water consumption accounts for 15-20% of the total water consumption by industrial enterprises of the country. A modern metallurgical enterprise consumes 180-200 cubic meters of water for the production of 1 ton of rolled steel.

The daily water turnover at individual enterprises reaches 3 million tons cubic meters or more. Of this amount, about 48% is used for cooling equipment, 26% - for gas purification, 12% - for metal processing and finishing, 11% - for hydraulic transportation and 3% - for other needs. Irretrievable losses associated with evaporation and drop-off in recycled water supply systems, with the preparation of chemically treated water, with losses in technological processes, are 6-8%.The rest of the water in the form of effluents is returned to the reservoirs. About 60-70% of wastewater is considered to be "conditionally clean" wastewater, i.e. having only an elevated temperature. The remaining waste water (30-40%) is contaminated with various impurities and harmful compounds.

The discharge of contaminated wastewater from metallurgical plants in the reservoir increases the amount of suspended particles, a significant part of which is deposited near the descent site, increases the water temperature, worsens the oxygen regime, and forms an oily membrane on the water surface. If the incoming effluents contain acids, then the acidity of the water also increases, and the course of biological processes is disrupted. All this can lead to the death of aquatic organisms and disruption of the natural processes of self-purification of reservoirs. The total runoff of the enterprise has the following characteristics (Table 1):

 Table 1. Characteristics of the company's wastewater.


Water supplied from the source

Total runoff


Without color




Sludge and oil

Suspended solids, mg / l






Alkalinity, mg-eq/l



Chemical composition, mg/l







Wastewater discharge in the Karaganda region is carried out through 47 water outlets, including 14 water outlets to surface reservoirs. In total, 76 treatment facilities are involved in the region. Thanks to the control of environmental authorities to prevent pollution of water bodies, the volume of untreated water entering surface water bodies has decreased ( from 47.8 million cubic meters in 1996 to 9.9 million cubic meters this year).

Urgent measures must be taken to prevent waste water from entering Lake Balkhash. There is a significant decrease in the water level in the lake (341m is a critical level, and the level has already been registered-341, 57 m).There was a drop in the water level and an increase in the salt content in the fresh part of the reservoir by 2 times ( 1000 mg. Until 2000), which occurred as a result of unjustified regulation of the flow of the Ili river for the Kapchagai hydroelectric power station and the construction of systems with a violation of water start-up. Balkhash is also affected by the surrounding economic territories, enterprises and the operation of the Sary-Shagan military training ground.

Of particular concern is the problem of cleaning the bottom sediments of the Nura River from mercury. As a result of the research, heavy pollution was detected on the territory of JSC "Karbid".

Discharges of industrial and municipal enterprises that have been treated at treatment facilities and emergency discharges are sources of pollution of water bodies and the environment.


  1. Bolshina E. P. Ecology of metallurgical production: A course of lectures. - Novotroitsk: NF NUST MISIS, 2012. - 155 p.
  2. Хантурина Г.Р., Сейткасымова Г.Ж., Федорова И.А., Амирханова Н.Ж. Санитарно-химический состав воды Карагандинской области Казахстана / Тенденции современной науки - 2015 [Электронный ресурс]. ­– Режим доступа: http://www.rusnauka.com/21_TSN_2015/Medecine/9_197548.doc.htm (дата обращения 24.04.2021г.).
  3. Состояние водных ресурсов Карагандинской области [Электронный ресурс] . – Режим доступа: https://vuzlit.ru/1332846/sostoyanie_vodnyh_resursov_karagandinskoy_oblasti (дата обращения 24.04.2021г.).

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