"Научный аспект №2-2019" - Гуманитарные науки

УДК 947.1; 973 (575.2) (043.3)

In the sphere of global interests in Central Asia and the European Union

Абдыразакова Зарипа Матисаковна – кандидат исторических наук, доцент кафедры Общественных наук Ошского технологического университета.

Аннотация: Прежде чем рассматривать политику Европейского Союза в Центральной Азии, следует кратко остановиться на исторических, природных, географических и других факторах, влияющих на развитие его отношений с государствами Центральной Азии, включая Кыргызстан.

Ключевые слова: Европа, глобальное, история, культура, политика, регионы.

Abstract: Before considering the policy of the European Union in Central Asia, we should briefly focus on the historical, natural, geographical, and other factors affecting the development of its relations with the States of Central Asia, including Kyrgyzstan.

Keywords: Europe, global, history, culture, politics, regions.

The disappearance of the USSR from the world political map radically changed the role and place of the former Soviet republics in the system of international relations. The introduction of the new independent States of Central Asia as a full member of the world community has created many difficulties. Because these States had no experience and base in this direction. In the 1990s, no Central Asian state could try to solve the world's problems. However, despite this, they are among the first in the history of its development entered the international political arena as an independent state, achieving statehood.

On the other hand, the fall of the Soviet Supreme power intensified the attempts of the European States to undermine the vacuum in Central Asia. Because at that time there was no strength to try to strengthen its influence. They feared that the influence of China or the influence of Islam was growing in this territory, Russia, developing on an authoritarian basis, would once again strengthen its influence. European countries, interested in the region's rich natural resources, have come to the goal of spreading the values of market economy, democracy, rule of law and human rights in the region. All this has allowed European States since the early 1990s not to be attentive to the region.

Western Europe has its own position on the modern development of the world. It is believed that the process of globalization here creates new opportunities for unification, rapprochement of peoples and open development of society. According to Europeans, globalization creates not only new opportunities for the process, but also new problems (migration, energy problems, etc.) (in the wording of the resolution of the government of the Kyrgyz Republic, In their opinion, these processes create opportunities for solving problems positive for the world community. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new rules of international law that will enhance the role of international institutions of Western Europe, to solve problems with the provisions.

The European Union positions in world politics that, unlike the United States in solving international problems, the situation can be resolved only by agreement, not by violence. This desire of the EU has created favorable conditions for the growth of its international authority. There was broad support for the European position on climate, international law and respect for human rights. For example, the European Union accounts for 70 per cent of the world's aid to poor States. This figure is four times the amount of assistance provided by the United States.

The European Union focuses on international organizations to achieve its goals and solve world problems. The strengthening of the EU system of international organizations is a blow to global hegemony. At the same time, Europe's authority in world politics is growing, with an emphasis on international organizations.

Relations between the European Union and the Central Asian States have been implemented in four main areas:

  • strengthening of democratic political mechanisms and the promotion of market reforms;
  • settlement of the conflict situation in the region;
  • development of energy direction and creation of energy and transport corridors connecting East and West;
  • security cooperation.

It was then that the EU adopted the TACIS cooperation programme. It is aimed at providing technical assistance in the development of democracy in a market economy, strengthening ties between the Central Asian States and the European Union. In addition, the TACIS programme supported cultural projects aimed at developing cultural infrastructure.

Cooperation between Central Asia and the European Union is a bilateral process that should be based on negotiations and agreements. Regular meetings of politicians and official leaders of the partner countries contributed to the development of relations between the EU and the countries of Central Asia through dialogue. The planned programme for 2000-2006 will support institutional, legal and administrative reforms in the activities of TACIS, promote economic development and private sector development, contribute to the elimination of the social consequences of the transition period, develop a number of infrastructure sectors, protect the environment and manage natural resources, develop the agricultural economy, maintain nuclear safety and others.

On 30 October 2002, the European Commission adopted a strategic plan for Central Asia. According to him, the strategic framework of the assistance provided by the European Union in the period from 2000 to 2006 has been defined. This plan has been implemented within the framework of the planned TACIS programme for Central Asia for 2002-2004, the study of the cooperation of the European Council with the countries of Central Asia, as well as a new strategy for the provision of technical assistance. The annual rate of EU financial assistance to these States is 50 million us dollars. was the Euro. It should be noted in particular that the adoption in December 2006 by the European Union of documents confirming the instruments of programmes financing the development of a number of States, including the countries of Central Asia, demonstrates the long-term focus of the European Union strategy in the Central Asian republics. The EU agreed to cooperate with developing States and to Finance a number of activities.

The main goal of cooperation is to overcome poverty in partner countries and regions, ensure sustainable development, promote democracy, fair governance, respect for human rights, establish the rule of law, etc. b. The main directions of educational programs are: improving the quality of primary education, combating all types of child labor, training of professional specialists, improving the system of higher education, etc. b. In addition, the foundations of cultural cooperation, academic and cultural exchange, mutual understanding between partner States and regions to establish relations with the European Union were noted.

The above-mentioned regulations formed the legal basis of the indicative program for Central Asia. EU assistance to these countries on a regional and bilateral basis for 2007-2013 has been refined in the European Union Strategy. This strategy was adopted on 27 April 2007 at a meeting of close negotiations with the leaders of the Central Asian republics, donors and non-governmental organizations. This document describes the main risks in Central Asia, as well as the EU's responsibilities, goals and priorities in this area. The total amount of financing of the Central Asian republics is 719 million us dollars. was the Euro . The document States that, with the enlargement of the European Union in 2004-2007, the European Union has become geographically closer to Central Asia. It was noted that bilateral cooperation continues to be based on partnership and cooperation agreements. At the same time, a number of important issues at the regional level were resolved. In the period from 2007 to 2013, the purpose of European assistance to the Central Asian region was aimed at maintaining security and stability in the region, promoting regional cooperation.


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