УДК 009

Международное гуманитарное и культурное сотрудничество: подходы к пониманию, основные проблемы

Сурова Екатерина Александровна – бакалавр в сфере Международных отношений и внешней политики Национального государственного университета им. П.Ф. Лесгафта.

Аннотация: В статье представлен аналитический обзор международного гуманитарного сотрудничества, подходов к его пониманию. Проанализированы основные точки зрения на понятие, дано его определение. Освещены основные проблемы в международном гуманитарном сотрудничестве. Оценена также роль России в сфере международного гуманитарного сотрудничества.

Abstract: This article provides an analytical review of the international humanitarian cooperation and approaches to its understanding. The main points of view and the definition of the concept are given. The author covers the main challenges concerning the humanitarian cooperation. The role of Russia in the international humanitarian cooperation has also been evaluated.

Ключевые слова: Международное гуманитарное сотрудничество, культурное сотрудничество, международные отношения, внешняя политика России, гуманитарная сфера.

Keywords: International humanitarian cooperation, cultural cooperation, international relations, Russian foreign policy, humanitarian realm.


One of the main aspects of the international cooperation between the countries is their collaborative work in the humanitarian realm. The development of this aspect of cooperation is of great relevance today as it became an efficient means of international engagement and it proved to be a constraint ensuring lower confrontation. It is confirmed in the governmental concepts and in the statements of the world political authorities that highlights the direct influence of this aspect on the foreign policy of the countries. It should be also noted that not every state can take the responsibility for implementing humanitarian policy. It is important to understand that the state should have resources for supporting such a policy and be able to provide an adequate development model for its citizens.

Currently, humanitarian cooperation is increasingly affecting foreign policy and becoming an important instrument for its implementation. Over the last century, the concept humanitarian cooperation has undergone a lot of changes. In current understanding, this concept varies by its types, forms, and scale. It was greatly influenced by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the UN Charter, and the Final Act of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe. Due to a strong boost to the international humanitarian activity, a large number of research schools have been established and each offers its own interpretation of the concept humanitarian cooperation. The most known and the largest schools are the western and the Russian research school. Let us review the definitions they offer and compare what meaning has each of the schools. Western scholars believe that this concept is defined as providing assistance during a conflict, in the post-conflict period and during other critical situations.

Unlike them, Russian scholars interpret the term humanitarian cooperation differently. They do not see it as a humanitarian assistance but as a collaboration at intergovernmental level while they do not exclude assistance in the social and economic, spiritual sphere and in the sphere of mass communications.

It seems that a bipolar period has gone however, let us not forget that different interpretation of international humanitarian cooperation still plays and important role in solving the international issues.

Materials and methods

The source base of the research contains a large amount of materials, mainly, these are the articles of the Russian political scientists and historians A. Kurtov, A. Terentiev and others. For our analysis of the points of view concerning the definition of the term international humanitarian cooperation we referred to the Final Act of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe adopted on August 1, 1975. This document was very useful for comparing different approaches to the definition. Studying the Concept for Foreign Policy of the Russian Federation, we managed to evaluate the place and the role of Russia on the world arena, in particular, in the sphere of the international humanitarian cooperation.

Methodological framework

The methodology is principles, logical forms, structure, and methods of studying which enables perception of the essence of the subject and interpretation of the experimental data. More broadly, methodology is a theoretical representation of practice of a certain research and means of searching the answers on frequently asked historical questions [14, p. 123]. The scientific positions of the Russian and foreign scholars serve as a conceptual framework in this article. Among the other scientific research methods we also used analysis, synthesis, and statistical analysis.

Theoretical approaches to studying the international humanitarian cooperation

Humanitarian cooperation: Western approach

As we know, the attitude to the humanitarian policy on the West is very serious so we can say that our counterparts abroad have a greater responsibility concerning the interpretation of such issues, particularly, the human right issues.

The implementation of the humanitarian policy will not be completely successful without participation of the humanitarian organizations. In this type of activity, it is necessary to take into account a specific character of a certain society where even the slightest political or financial support can disturb a balance of power causing the upsurge of violence.

Negligence in the work of non-governmental organizations can lead to a humanitarian disaster. For example, the organizations failed the task and did not provide assistance and order maintenance in refugee camps in Kosovo and Gomi (Zaire). In such cases, a decision to terminate the humanitarian mission is justified because the situation becomes dangerous for the humanitarian aid workers [1].

Indeed, generally accepted international non-governmental organizations play a critical role in assisting post-conflict societies. Unfortunately, it is more often now that the activity of non-governmental organizations during humanitarian operations is under a great pressure of major powers having their own military and political interests. As experience shows, the role of these organizations is often given to the armed forces which are called upon for conflict management.

Howard Roy Williams, Chief Executive Officer of the Center for Humanitarian Cooperation in the USA, argued that the initial reaction of non-governmental organizations to the American military operation in Afghanistan was negative but later it changed to the opposite side.

The main purpose of the operation in Afghanistan was the rehabilitation of the transport system and urban infrastructure, execution of the projects in the sphere of education, health care, and school building. This was facilitated by the Provincial Development Stabilization Team. To some extent, such a ‘humanitarian’ approach to post-conflict management is driven by the need to establish relations with the local authorities. This requirement was not met and consequently, neither financial support nor humanitarian development programs and demonstration of the military power made the occupying forces friends to the people in Afghanistan [2].

As practice shows, despite multiple examples of humanitarian assistance to the post-conflict societies and an important function of non-governmental organizations related to protecting human rights, the forms of humanitarian cooperation have been constantly changing and developing. Being originally the factor of soft power gradually they became a hard power factor.

In the context of international cooperation in the post-bipolar period, humanitarian cooperation was connected not only with various forms of peaceful activities but with the forceful intervention in different countries and regions as well. This is not without a reason that a concept humanitarian intervention became an essential part of international cooperation, on the one hand and a subject of debates about humanitarian aspects of the global policy, on the other hand [3].

Initially, the term humanitarian intervention was applied only in cases when there was an acute need to manage the foreign policy activities of the states by using military forces. However, the broader definition of the human rights protection concept meant a transition from regulation of conduct to regulation of condition. According to this approach, the concept of human rights protection contradicts the concept of sovereignty and thus, the non-intervention principle in the inter-State relations is violated. Tony Blair proposed to amend the UN Charter to justify military occupation of those states and regions where humanitarian interests are violated. Blair said that the values and interests can not exist separately and that priorities’ dissemination would give us better protection against external threats [5; 35].

Following the idea of Blair, the United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan said that intervention was used in a positive sense. The Secretary-General explained it by taking medicine as an example: “… medicine is used to describe the actions of a surgeon who saves the life of a person removing a malignant tumor” [4].

George Frost Kennan noted that the ways the people choose to achieve a dignified and educated form of government are the deepest and the most intimate processes of the life of a nation. These ways are strange for the foreigners and foreign intervention can be only harmful [6].

A Russia scholar V.L. Inozemtsev shared this opinion. He believed that many analysts find it necessary to disseminate the practice of the so-called Nation Building. However, they did not understand that introduction of government institutions to the country which was in chaos made those institutions only prototypes. Once in such complicated conditions, new reformists do not allow the local society develop their own internal need in the institutions.

Current scientific and academic disciplines offer numerous interpretations of basic legal norms however, the practice of unilateral strong-arm approach only facilitates the uncertainty of the world order as it is increasingly used on the pretext of humanitarian purposes. To avoid confrontation, it is necessary to prevent the transition of humanitarian cooperation to the hard power factor which has a dangerous influence on the international processes.

Analyzing the structure of the Western approach to the humanitarian issues we can say that since the 90s of the 20th century we observe a departure from the fundamental principles in the UN Charter. Military, political and humanitarian functions get merged when humanitarian projects are carried out under the auspices of the USA and its allies. In the result, the humanitarian strategy acquires a military character and the functions of non-governmental organizations become the responsibility of the armed forces which operate on the territory of an independent state. For example, in Libya no authorization was obtained from the national legislative bodies and this contradicts the norms of the international law.

Humanitarian cooperation: Russian approach

In Russian school, unlike the European and American, the term humanitarian cooperation is interpreted in the spirit of the Final Act of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (Helsinki Accords). So humanitarian cooperation is not just providing humanitarian assistance during a conflict, in the post-conflict period and during other critical situations. It is cooperation at international level in the social and economic sphere (science, culture, art, and mass communications). We need to analyze this document to better understand the principles of the Russian approach to understanding the humanitarian cooperation.

Let us start with the fact that by signing the Accords the states express their intention to do everything possible to contribute to peace and understanding among peoples and nations and spiritual enrichment of a person regardless race, language, and religion. The states should understand that to reach these aims they need to develop culture and education, disseminate information, facilitate the contacts between the people and solve humanitarian problems.

In the third part of the Accords the elements of the humanitarian cooperation are reviewed such as contacts between the people, information, cultural and educational exchange.

Speaking about the contacts between the people, the State parties aim to create better conditions for free movements of people and contacts establishment individually or in a group, officially or non-officially, between people, institutes, and organizations of the State parties and to assist in humanitarian issues [5; 35].

Besides, the objective of the State parties of the Helsinki Accords is to facilitate better and wider dissemination of all forms of information and its exchange with other states and to improve the conditions for the journalists who work in another State party.

The states that signed the Accords clearly understand that the development of relations at the international level in the sphere of science and education has a positive effect on the development of mutual understanding, it is favorable for all peoples and future generations. The states express their intent to strengthen the linkages, provide access and exchanges, develop science, promote motivation to learn foreign languages, improve the teaching methods, support national minorities or regional cultures.

Nothing but the humanitarian cooperation can be the best instrument for promoting an inter-civilizations dialogue, reaching agreement and providing mutual understanding between the peoples, avoiding world confrontation. We can say that the humanitarian cooperation has an effect on the processes of forming modern polycentric world order system and sets a direction for its development.

We should not also forget that cooperation in the humanitarian sphere facilitates the development of good neighborly relations which is so important for our country as we share our borders with many other states. The humanitarian cooperation has its history, knowledge and experience, traditions, and a wide range of form and methods.

It is important to note that the highest authorities of Russia also support the idea of strengthening the humanitarian cooperation in the CIS. D.A. Medvedev said that direct communication between the young people from CIS combined with real actions promotes not only professional development but helps to understand each other better, strengthens good traditions of friendship that were gained by our countries and nations and it also defines the future of our good neighborly relations. Education and science play a critical role in establishing sustainable peace, stability and progress [6]. V.V. Putin also notes that Russia has always encouraged the expansion of friendly relations between the CIS countries and is ready to create all the conditions required for effective work [7].

As mentioned above, in Russia the definition of the humanitarian cooperation includes the development and support of international relations in the sphere of education, culture, science, and mass communications. This conclusion emerges from the fundamental documents and the aspiration of the Russian authorities towards the humanitarian cooperation in CIS.

We believe that the Russian federation should be the leader, set an example in the humanitarian cooperation and the neighboring states should measure themselves against this example.

At the same time, Russian scholars speak about the need of a systematic work in CIS to develop international relations cooperation and cooperation in the historical realm.

Such a vast area of the Commonwealth should be filled with culture, science, common informational field, educational systems and a system of social communications available for all the citizens [13; 11-12].

We should not forget however about the economic dimension which also plays an important role in developing humanitarian cooperation in the Commonwealth. The humanitarian cooperation has a great potential. The problem lies in the material and financial support for such cooperation. A progress in cooperation development can be reached in two ways. First, due to a sharp funding increase which presents a challenge taking into account the level of economic development in many CIS countries. Second, due to the rapid development of economic integration. This method will make a common educational, informational, scientific, and cultural space a necessity [9].

The Russian school considers the humanitarian cooperation as a soft power factor. Some Russian experts (I. Zevelev, V. Nikonov et al.) have noted on a number of occasions that the factor of soft power was underestimated when exercising the Russian interests in the post-Soviet area. They proposed to use both a unique Russian experience in establishing inter-civilizations dialogue and traditional actions of the State and non-governmental organizations.

Extensive measures are required to develop this area of cooperation such as attracting talented workers for studying in Russia, implementation of joint programs in the sphere of science, culture, mass media, and other humanitarian spheres. In the last years, an extensive work has been carried out but still this is not enough to fill the gaps of the past policy and taking into account the same extensive and multidimensional work of many other participants on the international arena who present the interests of other policy-makers (the USA, EU, China, Turkey etc.). The analysts underline the significance of supporting this work and making it multipurpose. Besides, this work must be aimed towards the elite and society and must be attractive for the Russians and other various layers of the NIS audience. In the context of alternation of generations, there is an increasing need in attracting the youth to the politics to make up for a transition of the current NIS leaders who were socializing in the context of the common with Russia state [10].

“With the help of the instruments of conscious influence, we need to constantly remind to our closest neighbors about the spiritual sphere of development of Russia, i.e. its rich culture, powerful science, qualitative education, physical culture with long-standing traditions and sports achievements, the presence of intellectual diaspora abroad etc.. This is not to mention a developed market economy and effective implementation of foreign policy” [11].

To sum up, we can say that the cooperation in the sphere of culture, education, science, and economy is considered by the Russian scholars as a very important aspect contributing to peace and the development of good neighborly relations and it is a significant factor for the world order today. The states which pay attention to the humanitarian cooperation are closely supported by the younger generation in priority regions (for example, in CIS countries). It is necessary to work out and establish certain mechanisms in this sphere to further develop this cooperation.

The issues of the international humanitarian cooperation

Comprehensive and mutually beneficial international humanitarian cooperation between the countries is one of the most important conditions to reach mutual understanding between the countries and the peoples.

First of all, this is explained by the fact that the problem resolution of a man, protection of his inalienable rights and freedoms, giving opportunity for his full development promote good neighborly relations and prevent inter-ethnic and inter-faith tensions.

The international humanitarian cooperation is the most important instrument to reach mutual understanding and mutual respect which is necessary for prospects development in various spheres of life of a society. It is a gross mistake to underestimate humanitarian issues because it can lead to misunderstanding, mistrust between the nations and, consequently, to the conflicts. The consequences of the conflicts restrict the opportunities for establishing a partnership. To avoid the inter-cultural break up and destruction of good neighborly relations, a collective effort is required to establish an inter-ethnic dialogue. Cooperation in the sphere of culture is an effective instrument to resolve misunderstanding and disagreements between the states and we must note that its potential is steadily increasing.

Under current conditions this course of the foreign policy requires thoughtful approaches. A policy in the sphere of the international cultural and humanitarian cooperation must contribute to solving the modernization tasks of a country and properly represent it on the international arena.

Recently, the countries concluded many agreements concerning the issues of education, health care, environmental protection, and migration of population. It is remarkable that today, there are many successful targeted programmes and their number is increasing every year. A legal framework is being prepared in the field of occupational health, social support, support of children and disabled people.

The lack of coordination in political, scientific, and financial fields has a negative effect on solving the issues. Success is possible only if there is a clear and defined approach. First, it is necessary to find the ways and mechanisms for effective use of the intellectual property potential. It can be various non-governmental organizations dealing with the issues of science and culture. Besides, we should actively attract the specialists from abroad but at the same time, we must not forget about our citizens who also work in the service of our country. Second, legal framework for cooperation in the field of science is critically important. In our opinion, we need to establish the methods of project development which contribute to the growth of innovative component of an industry and timely implementation of the latest innovations and advanced technologies into the manufacturing sector. The countries need to establish more projects which promote efficient use of scientific potential. To reach these aims, it is necessary to equip scientific centers, build international scientific laboratories to exchange knowledge and experience. This will be a great step to gain better results in science and technology.

As we concluded above, the humanitarian cooperation is not just cooperation of the countries in the sphere of science and culture but it is also assistance to the countries during a conflict, in the post-conflict period and during other critical situations. Many countries suffer and sustain losses because of natural disasters, collisions between the states, and refugee movements. It all requires urgent intervention by the international community. The UNO is the organization which can help to resolve humanitarian issues and bring together the participating countries to assist other states.

The International community assigned the responsibility for coordinating the operations related to the humanitarian assistance to the United Nations during the Second World War. Today the United Nations is the major guarantor of urgent assistance and long-lasting support, the catalyst of the actions taken by the government and humanitarian organizations, and defender of the population who were affected by the emergency.

Particular attention in this regard is paid to the following aspects:

  1. Respect and protection of the main principles of humanity, neutrality, impartiality, and independence and providing the subjects safe and free access to the population in need according to the provisions of the international law and national laws.
  2. Support country efforts in increasing their capacity to be prepared at all levels for natural disasters, to quickly react and mitigate the impact of the disasters. It is particularly related to the developing countries.
  3. Further developing and improving, as required, mechanisms for the use of emergency standby capacities, under the auspices of the United Nations, for a timely response to humanitarian emergencies.

The UNO and its partners in the humanitarian sphere provide timely assistance and support to the people in need. Unfortunately, the measures taken by the organization are not enough in some cases.

Due to a recent sharp increase in food and fuel prices, it becomes more difficult to solve the issues caused by the climatic changes and armed conflicts. It resulted in the protests and violence in many countries. Food security is violated because of high food prices. The World Bank offers discouraging prospects. Currently, 800 million of people already suffer from hunger but the crisis in food security can lead to the situation when 100 millions more will live in poverty. Consequently, in many countries, there is a risk of a sudden reversal of the progress achieved. Such a poor situation demonstrates that the global demand for the humanitarian assistance will be even higher.

Humanitarian consequences of the inter-State and intra-State conflicts are still significant. Forced population displacement is another problem that causes additional concern for the world community. According to the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) as of the end of 2007 the number of refugees in the world is 11.4 million of people. There are an estimated 26 million of people displaced within the country due to violence or persecution and the same number of displaced population due to the dangerous natural disasters [13].

The participating states and the participants of the international humanitarian activity, both within the system of the United Nations and beyond, deal with the challenges that affect the demand for the humanitarian assistance. An increased number of natural disasters, climatic changes and constant increase in food prices constitute a great risk of a catastrophe for the world community. It is impossible to completely satisfy the demand for assistance. To counter these tendencies, it is necessary to strengthen and to promote the humanitarian activity and provide a more efficient coordination at all levels. Besides, it is important that all the participants strictly observed the established principles of cooperation in the humanitarian sphere.

The main directions of the policy in Russia related to the international humanitarian cooperation

The Russian Federation is actively involved in the international humanitarian cooperation being one of the leading players in this field. The 21st century made us face new challenges and tasks related to the international relations and they must be solved by clearly defining the course of foreign policy. However, this is not enough. For adequate implementation of policy in this sphere, we need to consider the impact of cultural and humanitarian relations. First of all, we need to introduce the system of multipolarity. It is evident that the global competition is taking cultural and civilizational forms. The leaders of the international arena are fighting for global cultural influence. This fight includes new power centres which recently were ignored by the other states as a world policy participant. Globalization, despite its benefits (cultural interosculation and enrichment), often threatens the very existence of cultural integrity of countries and nations.

Culture plays a special role in foreign policy strategy in Russia. The position and the authority of a state in the world are defined not only by its military and political influence and economic resources but also by a cultural heritage of the country. Russian culture represents not only generally accepted values of the world community, expressing a spiritual integrity of the nation but also represents a part of the global cultural and historical heritage of the mankind. Spiritual and cultural potential of Russia accumulated over the centuries defines its special place in the world cultural space. This being said, due to the specific character of the historical development of Russia, our people are open and loyal to the cultures of other countries and nations.

A policy in the sphere of international cultural and humanitarian cooperation is an important component of the Russian policy on the international arena. Mutually beneficial international cultural and humanitarian cooperation can greatly contribute to the achievement of the priority objectives and increase the effectiveness of the Russian foreign policy.

In the context of globalization, comprehensive and effective involvement of the Russian spiritual and cultural potential can contribute to the adequate and positive image of our country. Effective actions also respond to the interests and needs of Russia in terms of developing friendly relations with more countries, preventing appearance of new boundaries between the countries, eliminating anti-Russian moods which are of political and ideological origin.

The cultural diplomacy becomes of a great importance taking into account the crucial moment of the world development and efforts that are taken to restrain Russia. This type of diplomacy uses specific forms and methods to influence the social opinion and it can strengthen the international authority of the country as independent and democratic state.

To clearly understand what aims and objectives our country has in the sphere of the international humanitarian cooperation, we need to review and analyze the Concept for Foreign Policy of the Russian Federation.

It is necessary to focus all the efforts on support and promotion of the Russian language and the culture of the Russian people in foreign countries. We need to use all available resources to develop the potential and the incentives of the civil society institutions in the sphere of social diplomacy and to promote the international cultural and humanitarian cooperation as a means of establishing inter-cultural and inter-religious dialogue.

The main objective of the Russian policy in this field includes creation of the atmosphere of mutual understanding and trust with foreign states; development of equitable and mutually beneficial partnership with the countries; active participation of the country in the system of international cultural cooperation and integration into the global cultural space.

Russian cultural presence abroad and foreign cultural presence in Russia should help Russia to take a rightful place on the world arena.

It is important that people abroad perceived Russia as a country with rich historical traditions, as a country where cultural life is developing in the context of diversity and artistic freedom. Cultural ties must reflect the current federal structure of Russia where equal dignity of cultures of all the nations living in the country is acknowledged. Effective policy in this field requires the consensus between the interests of the center and the regions while observing the independence and political integrity of Russia.

Cultural exchanges can promote and maintain stable and prospective relations between the states, public organizations and the nations. Such contacts should contribute to the international cooperation not only in the cultural field but also in the economic sphere.

International cultural and humanitarian cooperation is expected to implement state policies of the Russian Federation in the cultural sphere. The cooperation should be aimed towards strengthening the spirituality of the Russian society, increasing the intellectual potential, preserving cultural and moral values and spiritual unity of the nations.

As for the practical aspect of this concept, the propaganda of the Russian culture abroad can be carried out as large and long-term campaigns or events devoted to a certain theme. The Days of Russian Culture and other events should also be encouraged; meetings of the well-known figures of culture can be arranged with the aim of establishing creative contacts, experience exchange; participation in conferences and other events.

Participation of Russia in international literature and art campaigns, exhibitions, and competitions as well as in educational and scientific events is a critically important task for our country.

Multilateral cultural ties in the international cultural and humanism cooperation play a special role and they include participation of Russia in the activity of international organizations, cooperation with global and regional integration organizations. Various cultural events are critically important here and they include international festivals, conferences, and symposiums.

It is necessary to promote the expansion of the international treaty framework of participation of Russia in multilateral cultural and humanitarian cooperation including its possible adherence to the most important treaties, conventions, and agreements which serve the interests of Russia.

One of the main aims of cooperation with some international organizations should be the most effective use of their potential, namely, material and financial potential in order to promote and support cultural development in our country and reinforce the exchanges at all levels including the regional.

In the context of Russian participation in the multilateral cooperation in the spheres of culture, education, youth and sport, promotion of Russian positions becomes of a great importance. It is necessary to reinforce exchange of the best practices and strive to disseminate the best Russian practices abroad. The best foreign methods should be used in Russia to modernize the aforementioned spheres.

The joint commissions that are created on the basis of parity are an important instrument to exercise the policy in the sphere of the international cultural and humanitarian cooperation. Such commissions are created by the representatives of Russian and foreign state structures in accordance with the international instruments related to the issues of the international cultural and humanitarian cooperation.

In exercising the policy in the sphere of the international cultural and humanitarian cooperation, foreign establishments in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation play a major role. The effectiveness and the integrity of the work of diplomatic missions and consular institutions in the Russian Federation determines the degree and the form of cultural presence of Russia in certain states.

The Russian scientific and cultural centers abroad greatly contribute to implementing the policy of the Russian Federation in the sphere of the international cultural and humanitarian cooperation. It is important to expand the number of such centers, especially in CIS countries, to improve legal and organizational arrangements of the centers and to increase the effectiveness of their work [15].

In the process of implementing the Russian Federation policy related to the international cultural and humanitarian cooperation federal executive government bodies work together with the houses of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, political parties, non-governmental organizations, and the authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. It is important to take advantage of the cooperation with the scientific community, artistic associations, and religious leaders. We should not forget however that the Russian and foreign members of the public also greatly contribute to the dissemination of the Russian culture and the Russian language.

We can make a conclusion that our country has clear aims and objectives and stays on its track which allows Russia successfully implement its foreign policy.


Having compared foreign and Russian approaches to the international cultural and humanitarian cooperation, we can come to conclusion that Russian scholars consider the cooperation according to the Helsinki Accords. It seems that the only difference is that on the Western scholars mainly pay attention to the human rights issues and to the settlement of post-crisis issues. And in Russia, the main focus is given to the international activity related to establishing, developing, and maintaining cultural and educational ties.

As for the development of multilateral relations between Russia and CIS countries, we should note that our country is more confident in cooperating with CIS. Russia plays a proactive role in promoting in CIS the Russia Court of Human Rights of a similar nature to the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg, the EurAsEC Court, and the Common Economic Area. The allies confidently implement the policy in the sphere which was traditionally the Western prerogative.

We must acknowledge that the implementation of the policy in the sphere of the international cultural and humanitarian cooperation must be adequately resourced. It is necessary to use all available state financial and economic mechanisms and to attract extrabudgetary resources on the basis of the voluntary public-private partnership.


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