European Union. A new state or just a combination of economic interests?

Гаспарян Алена Варужановна – магистр кафедры Управления Академии государственного управления Республики Армения.

Аннотация: Цель данной статьи - выявить слабые стороны ЕС и определить является ли ЕС ключевой фигурой на геополитическом атласе или же потеряла свою бывалую мощь. В статье рассматриваются отношения между такими державами как Франция и Германия, возможность их становлением противовесом США, не давая Америке стать единственной сверхдержавой в мире. Также рассматриваются вероятные изменения сил на геополитической карте мира в связи с усилением влияния России и Китая на международные отношения.

Abstract: The purpose of this article is to identify the weaknesses of the EU and determine whether the EU is a key figure on the geopolitical atlas or has lost its seasoned power. The article examines the relations between such powers as France and Germany, the possibility of their becoming a counterweight to the United States, preventing America from becoming the only superpower in the world. The article also considers possible changes in the forces on the geopolitical map of the world due to the increasing influence of Russia and China on international relations.

Ключевые слова: Европейский Союз, сверхдержавы, геополитика, международные отношения

Keywords: European Union, counterbalancing, effective foreign policy

The modern history of the formation and development of the European Union (EU) dates back to 1951. In April of this year, an agreement was signed about the European Coal Steel Association (EUSC), which included six countries: France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg. This became the prehistory of Western European integration. The real beginning of its development dates back to 1957, when the same countries signed treaties establishing the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). Communities included countries with high levels of development, which largely determined their high economic growth rates over the next 15 years.

The EU describes itself as the world's largest trading bloc. But this is just a concept. The EU has undergone many changes in recent years. From a geopolitical point of view, the EU is important for Europe to dominate the world. Thus, theorists of geopolitical science considered Eurasia to be the center of global power, the control of which would ensure the control of the whole world.

There is only one superpower in the world today, but there are six or eight countries that can be called major regional powers. And the European Union belongs to them.It is a counterbalance to The United States, not allowing the USA to become the only superpower in the world.

The strongest players in the EU are France and Germany. France is strong militarily, Germany economically, it's natural that these two countries should continue to cooperate, counterbalancing the United States. At the same time, France can not allow Germany to become dominant based on Germany's past, and Germany, in turn, does not see enough power in France to allow France to become the only superpower in Europe, counterbalancing the United States, followed by Germany.

The UK's decision to leave the EU also questions the former strength of the EU. Thus, the idea of the EU, which belonged to the brilliant political thought of post-war Europe, was, of course, a wonderful, progressive idea. As Pozner once mentioned, The EU was originally made up of "brilliant players", but for purely political ambitions and considerations, this "league" has expanded, now it is full of "average players" who think only of their own interests. One of the super players (Great Britain) was tired of it, he said. "That's enough for me , I do not play anymore. Others will follow GB.

The United States is not the only problem for Europe. China is not as powerful as the United States, but it is just as ruthless in using its economic leverage. In addition, China is a technological rival.

As for Russia, which also has ambitions to be considered a superpower, not everything is clear. This country has always been viewed by the West as an adversary; there has always been an element of suspicion towards Russia. Russia-West relations are interpreted differently by Russia itself.

Speaking about Russia's policy, Pozner points out that Gorbachev, Yeltsin, and, of course, Putin wanted to normalize relations with the West, in particular. Putin quite frankly raised the question of Russia's entry into the European Union, but each time he faced distrust of the West. Gradually, the Russian leadership came to the conclusion that the West was not at all interested in rapprochement with Russia, on the contrary, it would like to contribute to the collapse of Russia.

When talking about the achievements of the EU, one should not ignore the thoughts of Brzezinski. In ''The Great Chessboard'', Brzezinski concludes that at this stage, economically united Europe has achieved impressive results, but it is politically fragmented.

In conclusion, the impulses of democratization in the EU have already lost their momentum since the beginning of the new millennium. It turned out that the classical Western-style democracy in the countries of the region could, by meeting with Islamist movements, exacerbate national conflicts, which in turn would affect the stability of the region.

In pursuing its interests in Central Asia, the EU will inevitably stand up to other powerful players - Russia, China and the United States. The implementation of European strategies will depend on the extent to which the EU can function as a cohesive political entity, as its individual members cannot compete with the above-mentioned actors. The key to the EU's success in Central Asia lies in its rapid political consolidation and the development of effective common foreign policy instruments.

In order for the European Union to have at least some meaning in the future, it is not a small reform that is needed, but a radical revolution.

References

  1. Borko U.A. "Treaties establishing the European Communities". Publishing House of Business Literature, 2003.
  2. Brzezinski Z. The Grand Chessboard. American dominance and its geostrategic imperatives. - M.: International Relations, 1999.
  3. Huntington Samuel: "The War of Civilizations" - This Is Not the End of History "Nezavisimaya Gazeta", Moscow, April 6, 2005.
  4. Kharlamova V.I. International economic integration: textbook - Moscow, 2007.
  5. Vladimir Pozner: Britain's withdrawal from the European Union will lead to the collapse of the EU: https://gordonua.com/news/worldnews/pozner-vyhod-velikobritanii-iz-evrosoyuza-privedet-k-raspadu-es-137899.html.

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