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Investigation of industrial waste from the Kadamzhai antimony plant for radioactive contamination

Ташполотов Ысламидин – доктор физико-математических наук, профессор Ошского государственного университета.

Эркинбаева Назгуль Абдикаримовна – старший преподаватель Ошского технологического университета.

Abstract: This article deals with the study of radioactive contamination of industrial waste from the Kadamzhai antimony plant (KSK) by alpha-alpha, beta-beta, and gamma–gamma radiation. The radioactive activities and equivalent doses of industrial waste (matte and slag) of the KSC are calculated. The results obtained were compared with the radiation safety standard.

Аннотация: В этой статье рассмотрено исследование радиоактивного загрязнения промышленных отходов Кадамжайского сурьмяного комбината (КСК) по α–альфа, β-бета и γ–гамма излучений. Рассчитаны радиоактивные активности и эквивалентные дозы промышленного отхода (штейна и шлака) КСК. Полученные результаты были сравнены с нормой радиационной безопасности.

Keywords: radiation, radiation, activity, equivalent dose, detector, electromagnetic ionization, slag, matte, penetration, pollution. 

Ключевые слова: радиация, излучение, активность, эквивалентная доза, детектор, электромагнитная ионизация, шлак, штейн, проникающая способность, загрязнение.

The Kyrgyz Republic has accumulated a huge amount of industrial waste containing radionuclides, heavy metal salts (antimony, mercury, lead, cadmium, zinc), as well as toxic substances (cyanides, alkalis, acids, silicates, nitrates, sulfates, etc.), which negatively affect the environment and public health. This is stated in the national report on the state of the environment of the Kyrgyz Republic (KR) for 2006-2011 [1,2].

Sources of radioactivity can be natural or artificial. Natural sources of ionizing radiation are radioactive elements that are located in the earth's crust and form a natural radiation background together with cosmic radiation.

 The analysis of the literature sources [1,3] allows us to note that the main types of ionizing radiation in techno genic waste are:

  • alpha radiation;
  • beta radiation;
  • gamma radiation.

Along with this, there are other types of radiation (neutron, positron, etc.), but we meet with them in everyday life much less often.

The toxicity of alpha radiation is caused by a colossally high ionization density and an overestimated energy and mass. Beta radiation is a corpuscular electron or positron ionizing radiation of the corresponding sign with a continuous energy spectrum. The electron path of beta particles in the air reaches several meters, in biological tissues the path of beta particles is several centimeters. Beta radiation, as well as alpha radiation, is dangerous when exposed to contact radiation, for example, when it enters the body, on the mucous membranes and skin. Some radionuclides are part of the biological tissues of animals and plants, and enter the human body through the gastrointestinal tract. The high penetrating power of gamma radiation is explained by the absence of an electric charge and the possible higher energy. The range of gamma – ray energy is quite wide, from a fraction of electron volts(eV) to 13MeV [3].

The object of research in this paper is the technogenic waste of the Kadamzhai antimony plant of the Kyrgyz Republic.

To date, more than 7 million tons of industrial waste containing antimony and other elements have been collected near the territory of the Kadamzhai Antimony Plant (KSK) [2]. In the immediate vicinity of the plant's workshops and industrial waste sites are housing, neighborhoods, schools, shops, where daily residents of the city receive an extremely dangerous dose of antimony and mercury radioactive waste.

During the long-term work of the KSK antimony waste of the plant accumulated and caused diseases such as lung silicosis, antimony intoxication, leading to mental and other dangerous diseases in the population living near the waste.

Therefore, the purpose of this work is to study the radioactivity of industrial waste KSK by α, β and γ radiation. The methods of conducting studies of man-made waste for radioactive radiation are based on the methods recommended in the corresponding GOST [5].

For the study of industrial waste KSK used beta-radiometer RUB-01P6, detection unit BDKG-03P, measuring device UI-38P2. The radiometer is designed to measure the specific and volumetric activity of beta-gamma radiating nuclides in samples of promotkhod.

The sampling was carried out according to the sampling procedure for determining the toxicity of industrial waste.

It is known that as a result of long-term accumulation of industrial waste(PO) and the impact of the environment on them, conditional three layers are formed: surface, internal and deep.

Therefore, sampling was carried out taking into account these layers at various points of waste accumulation, taking into account their accumulation relief. The distance between these sampling points did not exceed 1/5 of the linear size of the cluster.

The weight of the selected sample (more than 2 kg) was sufficient for the analysis and execution of all necessary experiments. Experimental tests were carried out with three or more samples of the selected samples.

The results of the obtained data allowed us to draw the following conclusions:

  1. It is shown that in industrial waste KSK (matte, slag, flotation tail waste), the activity of gamma radiation obtained using RUB-01P6 (detection unit BDKG-03P, measuring device UI-38P2) is from 9.51 to 10.18 Bq/kg. This reading is lower than the SDA – 20 Bq / kg.
  2. It was found that there is no equivalent dose of α-, β - radiation in the industrial waste of KSK (matte, slag, flotation tail waste).
  3. Measurement of KSK industrial waste (matte, slag, flotation tail waste) using a DKS-96 radiometer for an equivalent dose of gamma-gamma radiation shows that this type of radiation varies in the range from 0.17 to 0.198 mSv/h. This reading is lower than the SDA-0.25 mSv/h.

References

  1. Monitoring, forecasting of hazardous processes and phenomena on the territory of the Kyrgyz Republic (Ed. 16-e with ed. and add.), Bishkek: EMERCOM of the Kyrgyz Republic, 2019, - 765 p.
  2. Resolution of the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic No. 389 of August 19, 2005 "On approval of the State Program for the use of production and consumption Waste and the Regulations on the State Waste Cadastre and Certification of hazardous waste".
  3. Arkhangelsk V. I., Krillov V. F., Korienkov I. P. Radiation hygiene. Workshop / training manual. - M: GEOTAR-Media, 2009 – - 352s.
  4. The method of express radiometric determination of the volume and specific activity of caesium radionuclides in water, soil, food, livestock and crop production by gamma radiation. IEO-90.
  5. Scientific and production enterprise "Doza". Dosimeters-radiometers DKS-96 UIK-04 operating instructions approved E 1. 415313.003 E-LU 2007-88c. The dosimeter-radiometer belongs to group B2a, to group No. 3 according to GOST 27451, and U1 according to GOST 15150.
  6. Law of the Kyrgyz Republic" On Radiation Safety of the Population of the Kyrgyz Republic", No. 58 of July 17, 1999. Resolution of the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic No. 520 of 02.12.1995 "On approval of the Regulations on the procedure for control of products imported into the Kyrgyz Republic", "Radiation safety standards" for the purpose of detecting radioactive contamination of metal waste and other consumer goods".

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