Cities are the main driving force of economic development

ЖумашоваГулзадаСултановнa – кандидат исторических наук, дoцент Oшскoгo гoсудaрственнoгo университетa.

Abstract: The concept of "city" has been interpreted in different ways at different times and in relation to different epochs. It is usually given based on genetic-historical, formal - legal, economic - statistical, demographic, socio-economic and other criteria. The share of the urban population worldwide is currently increasing rapidly.

Aннoтaция: В пoнятие «гoрoд» в рaзнoе время и пo oтнoшению к рaзным эпoхaм вклaдывaлoсь рaзличнoе сoдержaние. Oбычнo oнo дaется, исхoдя из генетически-истoрическoгo, фoрмaльнo - прaвoвoгo, экoнoмикo - стaтистическoгo, демoгрaфическoгo, oбщественнo-хoзяйственнoгo и других критериев. В нaстoящее время дoля гoрoдскoгo нaселения вo всем мире стремительнo увеличивaется.

Keywords: city, coal, mine, semiconductor plant, socio-economic development, production, electricity, personnel, miners, workers.

Ключевые слoвa: гoрoд, угoль, шaхтa, зaвoд пoлупрoвoдникoв, сoциaльнo-экoнoмическoе рaзвитие, прoизвoдствo, электрoэнергия, кaдры, шaхтеры, рaбoчие.

In the Kyrgyz Republic, market conditions have had a negative impact on living conditions in small and medium-sized cities, where the closure of enterprises has led to a mass departure of the population from them and has created significant areas of unused, abandoned or sold at bargain prices housing. The authorities are taking measures to attract investment to these regions for the creation of new enterprises, reconstruction and re-equipment of existing ones. Funds are allocated for the development of hydropower and the tobacco industry.

In order to solve the problems facing the republic and, in particular, to stimulate the development of small and medium-sized cities, an Intergovernmental Council on Innovation was established, which included representatives of the Ministry of Finance, the State Property Fund, the Ministry of Foreign Trade, the Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources, the National Academy, the State Architectural Inspectorate under the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic, the Tax Inspectorate, representatives of banks, enterprises and organizations.

Currently, measures are being implemented to create a network of extra-budgetary funds that ensure the flow of funds to innovation activities, including through tax legislation. In order to form the technology market in the republic, it is planned to constantly publish information materials about innovative projects proposed for implementation, as well as hold exhibitions. It was decided to develop in 1998 "Regulations on Innovation Centers and Science and Technology Parks" and " Regulations on the Interdepartmental Council for Innovation Activities»

Worldwide, there is currently a rapid process of urbanization, accompanied by a high level of internal migration to large cities. According to the UN report "Prospects for Global Urbanization", more than half of the world's population lives in cities, and by 2050 the number of urban residents will increase by 2.5 billion people. And while cities are the main driver of economic development, they face a number of challenges that affect the quality of life of citizens. Therefore, citizens should actively participate in the processes of urban development, defend their interests, draw the attention of the authorities to the most pressing problems and try to build a constructive dialogue between the government and society to solve these problems.

Large cities such as Bishkek and Osh, and to a lesser extent regional centers, face high levels of internal migration. This directly affects the economic, social, and cultural aspects of our lives. Small towns and settlements of our country with the outflow of young people are also experiencing great difficulties in socio-economic development. One of the main problems is that certain resources that are located on the territory of these cities and localities are often accumulated and developed in the capital. We think that this is why the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic, in its new program "Cities – points of economic Growth", has paid attention to these problems and intends to use these resources locally, creating jobs and spaces there. This will help promote economic development, develop infrastructure in the regions, and restore cultural institutions so that people in the regions can live comfortably and safely - work, relax, and spend their leisure time.

I would also like to draw your attention to the fact that most municipal development programs aimed at the urban environment, infrastructure, and urban planning do not always correctly identify priorities. In my opinion, the main emphasis should be placed on the city dweller, on the pedestrian. Then-on cyclists, as full-fledged road users, and public transport. And only then private transport. Now, the opposite is true.

The population of the Kyrgyz Republic currently stands at 5.7 million people, and the annual population growth rate of the Kyrgyz Republic – 2.2% per year-is the highest in the region. About 35% of Kyrgyzstan's population lives in urban areas, compared to about 50% in Uzbekistan and more than 50% in Kazakhstan (Urbanization in Central Asia, ESCAP, 2014). In the 20 years from 1994 to 2014, the share of the urban population increased in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, but decreased by 2% and 9%, respectively, over the same period in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. And although the rate of urbanization is low, the actual rate of growth of the urban population exceeds the rate of growth of the country's population, mainly the population of cities is growing due to internal migration. That is, the country's urban population increases by 100,000 people per year, and if this increase occurred in one city, it would be among the seven largest cities in the country.

Most of this growth is accounted for in the peripheral areas of major cities-Bishkek and Osh, which have been growing steadily, and now their combined population accounts for more than 60% of the total urban population of the country. Next to the largest urban centers are four medium-sized cities (Jalal-Abad, Karakol, Tokmok and Uzgen), with a population of 50,000 to 100,000 inhabitants, which is about 25% of the total urban population of Kyrgyzstan. The remaining urban population is concentrated in 19 small towns, with a population of less than 50,000 inhabitants, which is only 15% of the country's urban population. Thus, we see that there is an unbalanced development of the cities of the Kyrgyz Republic with an emphasis on two large cities, and as a result, the potential for economic development of other urbanized territories, the ability to focus on developing lagging areas, is reduced. The development of urban areas damages the environment. Agricultural land is shrinking, and hydrocarbon emissions are rising. There is also a growing demand for public services, as well as vulnerability to natural disasters, both due to construction on unsuitable, dangerous sites, and due to extreme weather conditions due to climate change.


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