Preschool children education - learn to live together
Master. Pham Thi Yen – Quang Binh University – Viet Nam.
Abstract: Learning to live together is one of the key issues of education today. During the renovation of teaching methods in preschool, we must develop appropriate teaching methods to educate children with sympathetic attitude: how to make a dialogue, debate, cooperate and share with others through learning together, playing together, working together,etc... which helps children easily integrate into social life later.
Keywords: Methods of teaching, learning, evaluating, Acting, Learning to live together.
Why we should educate children on learning to live together?
Learning to live together is one of the key issues of education today. As the world is still full of conflicts requiring reasonable workarounds, education itself becomes a very important role in educating the people’s attitude of peace, mutual respect, respect for cultural and spirit values. To do that, then:
1) To educate the young generation on human diversity and human re-unification.
2) The individual's ethnic groups in parallel with the general human, a need to understand the people live to rely on each other.
Requirements of new life requires to teach children sympathetic attitude to others, how to make a dialogue, a debate and raising the spirit of cooperation to share with others, such as the schoolwork, teamwork, etc.. Educating the spirit of cooperation for a common goal is an educational content extremely important. Because the best way to survive, that is learning how to live together with others, learning to listen to others. Learning is a new feature of life. Tolerance does not mean "forgive" others, which means learning, understanding, sharing and mutual respect.
Therefore, since the child was very young, educators need to have appropriate educational methods and measures to help children with rudimentary understanding of diversity of peoples, compromising with others in the spirit of understanding, cooperating together for common goals.
A number of educational methods: Learn to live together
- Method of brainstorming
Brainstorming is a method that children in a short time can arise many ideas, many assumptions about a certain issue. This method will stimulate children to come up ideas, to quickly mobilize maximum potential knowledge.
Brainstorming method generally starts from teachers asking questions or issues that children need to find out, such as: how to measure the water in the bottle?, how to put the fragments into a complete picture?, etc... After questioning, the teacher facilitates the child to ask questions to each other, express their opinions and share their solutions together as much as possible. The teacher lists all of solutions, clarifies unclear ideas, classifies ideas and allows additional new ideas of children.
This method can be used in all children’s activities to solve all problems. However, the issues raised must be close, familiar in the real life of children. All children's opinions should be welcomed, encouraged by her teacher, should not being judgmental or judgment of right and wrong right. At the end of activities, the teacher should emphasize here the result of efforts of all children’s activities.
- Method of group activities (teamwork)
To implement this method, firstly the teacher must enable children present, exchange, and share their ideas, experiences, feelings and aspirations among their group/class. After the children have finished presenting their ideas, the teacher help them choose the most effective way and allows children to be jointly implemented their ideas.
Teamwork will mobilize working ability of all children to complete common tasks of the collective. Children have many opportunities to come together to debate, negotiate, share experiences and help one another, work together to perform common tasks. In particular, the formation of the ability to adjust, control their actions consistent with the general requirements, resolve the discord and communicate more effectively.
When implementing this method, teachers need to develop content, organizational forms of operation in the group matching needs and abilities of children in each age and in accordance with practical conditions of class, school. The overall performance of the child may be in various forms, but when assessing the teacher must pay attention to the behavior and actions of children in collective activities.
- Method “Acting”
Casting is a method of organizing for children to practice "try" some certain behavior in a hypothetical situation. This method is taking the child into real situations in order to arise children’s workarounds and behaviors. It should follow these steps:
+ Preparation: The teacher studies topic and situations which can occur while children perform to take proactive and appropriate measures to address.
+ Procedure: The teacher mentions the topic and situations for children to choose their acting. In particular, teachers should specify the preparation time and acting time for each group, discuss the behavior of specific characters or situations in the play.
+ End: Teachers deliver final conclusions and recommendations.
When using this method, the teacher should pay attention to scenarios consistent with childhood educational topic "Learning to live together", in accordance with the qualifications and abilities of children at each age. Scenario of plays needs to be open, not given the script and the dialogue. Teachers determine the appropriate time and should have the makeup belongings and simple props to increase the attractiveness of the play, especially pay attention to the shy children to help them easily integrated into group activities.
- Method: Game
Games are organized for children to learn a problem or performing behaviors attitudes, activities through certain games. Through playing game, children will have a chance to experience not only their attitudes and behaviors but also their friends’ ones. Also through the game, teachers can form children capacities of observation, commendation, assessment the behavior of other people. Games also relieve tension and fatigue; stimulate the interest of activities with common tasks.
When organizing games, teachers should determine the game content suitable for children educational theme "Learning to live together" and the level of awareness of children at each age. Teachers help children understand the rules of the game, respect the game rules. At the same time, we need to promote positivity and creativity of children and facilitate all children being involved. After the game, the teacher must organize for children remarks; evaluate the results of activities aiming at behaviors of children in the game.
- Method Project
This is the method that children are organized to perform a mission by jointly project identification, test, adjustment and evaluating the results of implementation. This method is often used for big preschoolers. Process of this method follows these steps:
+ Select a theme and build the project: The teacher mentions a number of topics for children to select, organizes group division. During this period, along with the guidance and direction of teacher, children discuss, debate, negotiate together to achieve program elaboration, activities planning such as: identifying work to do, how to carry out, assigning tasks to members and selecting belongings serving activities, etc...
+ Implementation of the project: The team members perform the work according to the plan set out for groups and individuals. Then, all members gather together to collect operating results of the group and prepare to publish their product.
Project Evaluation: Teachers facilitate children to discuss, comment and re-evaluate the process of implementation, results and experiences that children have achieved.
At this time, she is also involved in the evaluation process to make children feel concerned, be respectful and make the good relationship between her and children.
However, when using this method, teachers must define clear project objectives, which are practical and feasible. We need to facilitate all children to participate in the project. The contents of the project must conform to the qualifications and abilities of children.
Conclusion: All methods have advantages and disadvantages. Therefore in the course of implementation of educational activities for children in preschool, teachers need to adopt methods flexibly to create for children opportunities to learn how to live together even in their own real life, which will help them easily integrate into social life later.
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