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"Научный аспект №2-2019" - Гуманитарные науки

The role of “soft power” in forming the youth policy in Russia

Акифи Ахмад Хайбар – аспирант кафедры Политических наук и международных отношений Гуманитарного факультета Российского государственного социального университета.

Abstract: The aim of the work is to focus attention on the application of "soft power" in the symbiosis of the main forces affecting youth: the media and social networks. Has been developed a plan for the use of "soft power", which can strengthen Russia's positions in the countries of near and far abroad.

The novelty of the study is in the direction of the impact not only on the Russian-speaking population. The scope of the project is directed to the countries of near and far abroad. The main target group: students and active youth. The proposals developed in the article reveal the methods of "soft power" from a new angle for use in the vector of creating a positive image of Russia and exporting educational services. In article are used methods of comparative analysis of the existing experience, the basis of the hypothetico-deductive method. Conclusions indicate that the methodology of "soft power" has long-term, but very effective prospects.

Аннотация: Современная политическая ситуация и растущие негативные коннотации относительно всех действий со стороны РФ требуют крайне внимательного отношения в вопросах молодёжной политики. Акторы международных политических процессов подвержены огромному количеству угроз с разных сторон. В настоящее время активно ведутся информационные войны, и используется целый спектр различных воздействий на сознание народов. Формирование в международной молодёжной среде позитивного образа России крайне важно, особое внимание следует уделить методам «мягкой силы». Данные методы, чаще всего, подразумевают долгосрочную перспективу и не дают мгновенных показателей, нельзя не учитывать роль массовой культуры для достижения требуемых целей. В статье рассмотрены и приведены примеры некоторых актуальных методов данного типа воздействия на молодежную среду, так как именно молодежь – это та часть социума, которая будет формирующей через 10-15 лет, и которая сыграет роль в политических процессах.

Keywords: "Soft power", social networks, Russia's foreign policy, social networks, positive image, youth policy.

Ключевые слова: Мягкая сила, социальные сети, молодежная политика, позитивный имидж России, СМИ в политике, иностранные студенты, массовая культура в политике.

Currently, the phenomenon of soft power is the most effective global leadership strategy. This is recognized by all countries, but realized in various directions. The advantage of "soft power" is undeniable: this approach allows achieving high geopolitical results without bloody wars and human victims, however, do not underestimate the possibilities of this method.

Soft power is a new and promising direction, therefore, it is necessary, in our opinion, to orient in the implementation of this direction primarily to young people and to cover its interests. Under these conditions, the achievement of the set goals will not take long time. We will use the concept of "soft power" given by the developer of this theory, J. Noye: "soft power is the ability to influence others through the search for allies, the development of the agenda, persuasion, the creation of attraction in order to achieve a preferable result" [4; R. 20-21.] We see that the preferred result for Russia, with the use of "soft power" - is the creation of a positive image of the country, in modern complex geopolitical conditions, as well as expanding its spheres of influence and strengthening its positions. All this can be achieved using soft power tools.

The concept of "soft power" is treated differently, given the vector indicated by us, we can assume that we also agree with the interpretation of Li Guy Un and Chi Ge Yong that "soft politics" is a hidden attraction force, imaginary power and the promotion of a national image [ 2; P.34.]. We adhere to the original concept and do not consider the use of soft power as a way of realizing imaginary power. Unobtrusive influence can become a very real and effective power.

Russia is already actively using the concept of "soft power" and is trying to attract more and more allies. This is evidenced by the organization of the Russkiy Mir Foundation, as well as the resource Rossotrudnichestvo. Undoubtedly, these organizations are actively and productively working, but they are aimed mostly at the Russian-speaking population. A number of countries are actively using popular social networks for this purpose and this gives a much larger coverage of the world's population [6, 14].

At present, Russia's use of "soft power" technologies is aimed at demonstrating the country's culture and its attractiveness. However, it should not be forgotten that the sphere of institutions is no less important and productive. Thereby, the attractiveness of foreign policy also depends on the extent to how much the value orientations of the participants in interstate communications (the countries where the impact is planned) match, as well as the universality and prospects of the goals set in the global understanding.

Joseph Nye divided soft power in several areas of influence. In the youth policy, the most promising are:

  1. Diplomatic Soft Power - is an indicator of the effectiveness of diplomacy in international multilateral negotiations, the ability to curb aggression and prevent threats, to establish a global agenda; diplomatic reputation of the country.
  2. Human Capital Soft Power is a kind of humanitarian capital, based on the attractiveness of the system of general and university education, scientific and technological activities. Russia, as an exporter of scientific and technological achievements, will become a more attractive country among the civilian population, and in the case of a mass striving for education in Russia, the government’s interest in the specialists will also increase. This will enable many countries to turn again to the Russian education system.

Focusing on these two areas (which can be covered, synthesizing the media and the Internet), we achieve the growth of the cultural and ideological attractiveness of Russia and projects being implemented in Russia.

The main struggle for the trust of mass of the population at the moment takes place in the information space, where all governments are competing in the creation of their positive image.

J. Nye identifies several parameters of public diplomacy: daily communication, the purpose of which is to explain political and managerial decisions, both in the foreign and domestic policies of the governments; formation of the country's international image through foreign media; strategic communication, which is engaged in the planning of symbolic actions and creates information channels for long-term communication with the international community [17; P. 111-113].

In today's world, this is precisely the way that all modern and major conflicts are organized. We are exactly proposing the development of this type of impact in the form of "soft power", but not only for the Russian-speaking population. It is known that Russian diasporas in many countries of the world work through social networks [5], but Russians living abroad, already know about Russia, should have a more global goal: to reach foreign-speaking population by combining the possibilities of the media, Internet resources and social networks.

Quick development of information technologies has allowed everyone to get interactivity, personal involvement in the production of information products, seduction by their own importance in the Internet space. Therefor it is extremely important for Russia to use these resources as soon as possible.

Using of foreign students for the ulterior propaganda of Russia that will bring a positive and lasting result in the growing generation. It seems that the maximum effect of soft power is in peacetime, forming a spiritual component of society.

Attracting students, Russia will form the necessary intellectual elite in different countries of the world. The use of "soft power" strategy may be directed to the complex of tasks: 1) the achievement of mutual understanding and cooperation in their own countries, and other countries; 2) voluntary submission of one country, the interests of other countries, whose "soft power" will be the most attractive; 3) displacement of undesirable regimes in other countries.

As we see the area of influence of "soft power" is very broad, and as a result it can easily go into the methods of "heavy power". The development of the attractiveness of the country, through communication with citizens of other countries, is a promising method for the development of "soft power". Citizens of other countries will see that their compatriots are living well in Russia, therefore, a positive image of the country will be formed. Under such conditions, the negative influence can be leveled by the formed way.

Open propaganda, which is often mistakenly used as a means of "soft power," can provoke a reaction of skepticism, alienation, rejection, while getting information in social networks in the form of a simple life story can become a motivating force for creating a society of students studying in Russia or wishing to get education in Russian universities.

From point view of political management, modern political communications based on the use of the media, as already mentioned, are the most important tool for working with target audiences, since they allow you to manage the information space and, to a large extent, influence the public consciousness. It is necessary to form a positive image of Russia not only abroad, but also among the population of the country itself. we should not allow the influence of outside forces on the consciousness of citizens, throwing all resources on foreign policy.

In this way, it seems to us that "soft power", realized through the interests and needs of young people, can become a promising sphere of influence and the formation of necessary images, through impact through youth organizations and implementation in youth policy and diplomacy.

References

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  3. Nye J. Bound to Lead: The Changing Nature of American Power // N.Y. Basic Books. 1990. Р. 20–21.
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