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"Научный аспект №2-2019" - Естественные науки

Identification of gas resistance of trees and shrubs in Zhezkazgan industrial area

Ахматов Медет Кенжебаевич – кандидат биологических наук, профессор Кыргызского государственного университета имени И.Арабаева.

Максутбекова Гулжанат Тилеубаевна – аспирант Кыргызского государственного университета имени И.Арабаева.

Аннотация: Жезказганский регион является резко континентальным, отличается малым количеством осадков в летний период и суровой зимой. Для городов Жезказган и Сатпаев характерны высокие уровни тепловых, электромагнитных, шумовых и других видов загрязнений, так как в регионе разрабатываются месторождения меди, богатые примесями редкоземельных, рассеянных и благородных металлов. Данные города входят в десятку самых загрязненных городов Казахстана. Поэтому создание зеленых насаждений в данном регионе должно базироваться на научно-разработанном и апробированном ассортименте, который выдерживает суровые почвенно-климатические условия, устойчивым к болезням и вредителям, имеющим высокие декоративные качества. В статье приводятся результаты изучения гозоустойчивости древесно-кустарниковой флоры Жезказганского промышленного региона. В результате исследований растения разделены на 4 группы по степени газоустойчивости. Определены наиболее газоустойчивые виды, которых можно использовать для массового озеленения региона.

Ключевые слова: Жезказганский промышленный регион, растения, газоустойчивость, древесные и кустарниковые растения, климат.

Abstract: The article presents the results of studying the resistance of trees and shrubs in Zhezkazgan industrial area. It has been identified the most gas-resistant species that can be used for mass landscaping. Zhezkazgan region is sharply continental, characterized by low rainfall in the summer and harsh winter. The cities of Zhezkazgan and Satpayev are characterized by high levels of thermal, electromagnetic, noise and other types of pollution, as copper deposits rich in impurities of rare earth, scattered and precious metals are developed in the region. These cities are among the ten most polluted cities in Kazakhstan. Therefore, the creation of green spaces in the region should be based on a scientifically developed and tested range that can withstand harsh soil and climatic conditions, resistant to diseases and pests with high decorative qualities. The article presents the results of the study of the resistance of tree-shrub flora of Zhezkazgan industrial region. As a result of research, the plants are divided into 4 groups according to the degree of gas resistance. The most gas-resistant species that can be used for mass landscaping of the region are identified.

Keywords: Zhezkazgan industrial region, plants, gas resistance, trees and shrubs, climate.

Industrial companies pollute the urban environment with dust, emissions and discharges of by-products and industrial wastes. So, Zhezkazgan and Satpayev cities are among the ten most polluted cities in Kazakhstan.

The climate of the Zhezkazgan region is sharp continental, has low rainfall in summer time and the air is high dry. The amplitude of air temperature reaches 800C. The winter period is limited to the period from December to mid-March (Pic. 1-3).

Picture 1.The average air temperature in Zhezkazgan during the year, 0С.

Picture 2. Relative air humidity in Zhezkazgan during the year,%.

Picture 3. Precipitation of Zhezkazgan city during the year, mm.

Therefore, planning green spaces and selecting crops the question that arises is if they can withstand high summer temperatures, low air humidity and a constant lack of moisture. In addition, the cities are characterized by high levels of thermal, electromagnetic, noise and other types of pollution.

One of the factors of plant resistance to adverse conditions is gas resistance [1].

The industrial centers of Kazakhstan have a complicated environmental situation due to the location of industrial companies. Zhezkazgan industrial region is characterized by the extraction of copper ore, its enrichment and smelting of cathode copper. A significant negative impact on the urban environment of Zhezkazgan and Satpayev is exerted by industrial companies of the region - Kazakhmys LLP, which include three processing plants (Satpayev and Zhezkazgan), as well as a copper smelter (Zhezkazgan). “Zhezkazgantsvetmet” complex includes two processing plants, a copper smelter and a foundry-mechanical plant. The richest copper deposits, rich in rare trace and precious metals, are being developed around the city, in the foothills of Ulytau. In addition, there are also mined manganese ores, and in 2006 LLP "Kazakhmys" started developing iron ores from the Zhaman-Aibat deposit. Zhezkazgan corporation "Kazakhmys", which owns all the companies of heavy industry in the city, ranks eighth among the copper mining companies in the world [2].

The main air pollutants are oxides of sulfur, carbon and sulfur dioxide. These gases have a negative impact on vegetation cover in general, and on tree-shrub crops, in particular. Therefore, an active issue in the selection of a sustainable range of plants is not only taking into account the climatic conditions of the region, but also the degree of air pollution [3,4].

The main source of pollution in the region is the Zhezkazgan smelting plant, while in Satpayev city there are no sources of industrial pollution of the atmosphere. The objects of comparison were individuals of trees and shrubs growing on the territory of the Zhezkazgan Botanical Garden.

We have analyzed the state of the leaf plates of trees and shrubs as a result of observations in 2015-2017 based on the extent of damage to the leaf plates. The observations were conducted during the growing season from May to October.

The results showed that among the 16 species studied, there were identified no group of plants with estimated scores from 0 to 1 (Table 1).

Table 1 Indicators of gas resistance of some trees and shrubs around the Zhezkazgan smelting plant (ZSP) and on the area of Zhezkazgan botanical garden (ZBG).

Name of sort

Damage degree to sheet plates, %

2015

2016

2017

ZSP

ZBG

ZSP З

ZBG

ZSP

ZBG

Robinia pseudoacacia L.

40

15

35

10

40

15

Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliott

50

25

40

20

45

15

Berberis vulgaris L.

50

20

45

15

40

10

Betula pendula Ehrh.

30

15

35

15

35

20

Сrataegus sanquinea Pall.

40

20

30

15

30

10

Ulmus laevis Pall.

15

10

10

5

10

5

Quercus robur L.

30

15

40

20

30

10

Lonicera tatarica L.

20

10

15

5

15

10

Elaeagnus oxycarpa L.

15

5

10

5

15

10

Amygdalus nana L.

40

20

50

15

45

15

Juniperus sabina L.

10

5

15

5

15

5

Juniperus communis L.

50

10

45

15

45

10

Syringa josikaea Jacq.

35

5

30

10

35

5

Cotinus coggigria Scop.

45

10

40

10

45

15

Pinus sуlvestris L.

15

5

20

10

20

5

Populus alba L.

15

5

20

10

20

10

The results show that on the territory of the Zhezkazgan smelting plant there is more significant damage to the leaf plates of trees and shrubs than in comparison to Zhezkazgan botanical garden. So, the percentage of damage is 2-2.5 times different.

As a result of the observations on the degree of gas resistance of the plant can be divided into 4 groups (Pic. 4):

1 Highly resistant trees and shrubs - Juniperus Sabina, Pinus sуlvestris, Ulmus laevis, Populus alba;

2 Gas resistant sorts - Lonicera tatarica, Elaeagnus oxycarpa;

3 Medium gas-resistant - Robinia pseudoacacia, Betula pendula, Сrataegus sanquinea, Quercus robur, Amygdalus nana, Syringa josikaea;

4 Weak gas resistant - Aronia melanocarpa, Berberis vulgaris, Juniperus communis, Cotinus coggigria.

1 – highly resistant, 2 – gas resistant, 3 – medium gas-resistant, 4 – weak gas resistant

Picture 4. Distribution of sorts by gas resistance groups.

Thus, for landscaping industrial sites and creating sanitary forest belts, it is necessary to use such highly gas-resistant and gas-resistant sorts as Juniperus Sabina, Pinus sуlvestris, Ulmus laevis, Populus alba, Lonicera tatarica, Elaeagnus oxycarpa. The rest of the groups of plants for gas resistance can be used in urban and private green building

References

  1. Атлас Казахской ССР.Том 1.Природные условия и ресурсы. – М., 1982. – 220 с.
  2. Панин М.С. Основные источники загрязнения территории Казахстана радионуклидами и тяжелыми металлами // Доклады III Межд.науч.-практ.конф. Тяжелые металлы, радионуклиды и элементы-биофилы в окружающей среде. – М., 2004. – Т. 1. - С. 14-27.
  3. Жакатаева Б.Т. Антропогенные составляющие атмосферного загрязнения в Центральном Казахстане // Материалы межд.науч.-практ.конф., посвященные 80-летию академика Е.А. Букетова. – Караганда, 2015. – С. 120-127.
  4. Экологическая обстановка в Карагандинской области. Данные областного стат.управления. – Караганда, 2004-2005. – 21 с.
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