Finding learning difficulty children resulting from functional retardation of combined areas in frontal cortex
Le Thuc Anh - Faculty of Education, Vinh University.
Abstract: Children with functional retardation of combined areas in frontal cortex is one of six types of boundary retardation resulting to learning difficulty under the mechanism of neuropsychological. Mean of rapid diagnostic on neuropsychological (Luria - 90) may help to identify brain regions that are retardation based on the symptoms and syndrome of neurological psychology.
Keywords: Boundary retardation, learning difficulty children, combined areas of the cortex ; the functional zoning.
The phenomenon of learning difficulty children is an objective existence in the schools. World Health Organization (WHO) extracted from data of Dean (1995) showed that this group of children accounted for from 15 to 25% of school age children.
According to the findings of the Centre for Studies on kid intellectual Development - Moscow in charged by Prof. Dr. LXXvetcova in 2006, there are up to 28% of 2500 objectives who are early elementary school students participating in the study is in group 3 and group 4 (according to author's classification) - willing to go to school in low level and not willing to go to school. Research of Prof. Dr. LXXvetcova and his colleagues give the confirmation that willing to go to school in low level and not willing to go to school before grade 1 are considered as a forecast of learning difficulties relating to the slow development of some high-level psychological functions zoned in the cortex .
In fact, learning difficulties children resulting from many different causes. The study relates to the development and the control of the brain so it needs to identify cases that children can learn and can be taught then help them to keep up with popular programs.
Learning difficulties children who have functional retardation compared with the age are classified as limited slowly psychological development (retarded boundary) by World Health Organization (WHO). If it is formatted with IQ, these children have IQ of ≤ 80 and >70 (according to the formula of Weschler IQ) – is the boundary state between normal growth and mental retardation. They are normal developed children on physical indicators, can have fun with the same age friends but troubles occur when they begin to learn (displayed right at the first class of primary school). In the studies of Russian neuropsychological independent functional area retardation on the cortex is classified into 6 types which hinder learning and understanding comprehension knowledge of the students. In principle, the boundary retardation children can learn and be taught the principle of functional offset between the parts of the cortex.
Retardation in combined areas of frontal cortex is one of 6 types of learning difficulty in children. The concern is that these children will keep learning programs in schools as the same age friends if they are timely impacted on conformity with the degree and nature of their slow development.
2. Finding children with learning difficulty resulting from functional less development of combined areas in frontal cortex
Learning difficulty children resulting from functional retardation of the combined areas on the frontal cortex are identified primarily based on the diagnostic results, locating the underdeveloped areas of the brain function. In neurological psychology, rapid neurological psychological diagnostic method known as Luria - 90 designed by children neural psychologist EGXimernhixtcaia Ximernhixtcaia . The implementation process of the method is designed Luria - 90 will reveal symptoms - symptoms of psychological perspective Neuroscience.
The features for identification of the children with learning difficulty resulting from functional retardation in combined areas of the frontal cortex are evidenced by the case of grades 2 students in Hong Son Primary School - Vinh City - Nghe An, year 2013 -2014 in the Doctorial Theory Study by the author .
- Clinical picture: Through observation and contact, they show some problems relating to behaviors such as:
+ High level of dispersed attention; do not focus on any works, not willing to finish their work.
+ Their activities often have no purpose.
They live in material sufficiency and they are indulgent by their family so they can do and can be satisfied anything they want. Currently they are in the poor students group of the school.
- Psychological picture:
The clinical study step shows that the implementation of research tasks for the students take longer time than other cases because of a lack of attention. They can complete their work only if they are reminded.
The final conclusion of the head teacher about this student as "not acquired so cannot learn."
- Neuropsychological picture:
Results from Luria examination method - 90 reflect the disorder in programming, controlling, checking and reviewing the operation of themselves, show as the inability of focusing; disorders in the process of developing an action plan based on orientated activities, inability to check and control the action. Ability rotation less manipulation in action. The students do not know the way to arrange their activities in an order program. A lot of forming errors appear. The repeat of the tester to promote memorizing does not help them to improve remembered volume. When repeated, they realize their errors, but continue to make that errors.
According to the research on children by the author AR Luria, E.G. Ximernhitxcaia, combinations of signs obtained by the above neuropsychological clinical examination often lets to think of the slow development of combined frontal area of the cerebral hemispheres.
The combined areas of the frontal cortex are in the later formed area of cerebral hemispheres. The areas lie on the secondary area of the moving area and on the remaining areas of the cerebral hemispheres ensuring a two-way relationship between the frontal cortex and structures located adjacent to the bottom of the net creating field of force of the cerebral cortex and the structure of the block which receive and process and contain information from outside. With such structure, combined areas of frontal cortex as a managing apparatus of the systematic intellectual activities help the entity to form his intent, plan action programs on the basis orientation; control to adjust implantation process. The control of these brain areas help the learner to focus his attention; rotate flexible actions required by the learning task; check and control ongoing actions.
In terms of function, less development of combined areas of frontal cortex result to the fact that the structure of the operation, particularly the intellectual activities is not systematic, the actions are done disorderly. In the structure of the operation, the worst is action-oriented basis with disorder expression. Learners often have symptoms such as: bad concentration, unsustainable attention; less action rotation ability; disorders of the process of developing an action plan based on orientated activities, inability to check and control of the ongoing actions.
Learning – knowledge receiving as a psychological operation, is not only the reception, transforming the outside information, but also the activities which should be organized for programming, controlling the process as well as its final outcome. Underdeveloped combined area of the cortex is fundamental factors causing difficulties and obstacles in learning of this group.
10 - The region retarded.
In summary, the children with learning difficulty resulting from underdeveloped combined area of the frontal cortex show manifestations hindering their academic achievement in all aspects of clinical observation, psychology and neuropsychological. Therefore, student's academic result is very bad, they are still ranked by school and head teacher in poor group with average academic ability.
Combination of these factors is the cause of the lagging behind in learning of students with underdeveloped in combined area of frontal cortex.
However, it can be said that the potential basis for conducting the functional set off on the principle of operation of the brain is the conservation of specific forms. under development in combined area of frontal cortex does not cause any visual dysfunction, auditory, tactile and sensory and body movement. So teaching experience difficulty regulating school students are alternative forms bottlenecks corresponds young retarded band structure with a program including manipulation system arranged in order. The implementation of actions under the program will help children overcome the limitations and resolve intellectual exercises. Effectively exploit this potential facility will provide an opportunity to help students may attend with their friends.
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