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УДК 37

Developing intercultural-communicative competence in the process of independent work of students

Саванкова Марина Владимировна – старший преподаватель кафедры методики иноязычного образования Казахского университета международных отношений и мировых языков имени Абылай хана.

Аннотация: Данная статья раскрывает особенности формирования межкультурно-коммуникативной компетенции у студентов изучающих иностранные языки в процессе самостоятельной работы. В статье представлены результаты проведенного исследования, подтверждающего необходимость вовлечения студента в учебный процесс на этапах целеполагания, контроля и оценивания результатов деятельности, что может существенно повысить эффективность самостоятельной работы, и поможет сформировать личность субъекта межкультурной коммуникации.

Ключевые слова: Самостоятельная работа студентов, межкультурно-коммуникативная компетенция, само-оценка, компетенция, субъект межкультурной коммуникации.

Abstract: This article reveals the features of the formation of intercultural-communicative competence of students studying foreign languages in the process of independent work. The article presents the results of the study, confirming the need for the student to be involved in the educational process at the stages of goal setting, monitoring and evaluating the results of activities, which can significantly increase the effectiveness of independent work and help to develop the personality of the subject of intercultural communication.

Keywords: Independent work of students, intercultural and communicative competence, self-assessment, competence, subject of intercultural communication.

The formation of a fundamentally new multidimensional sociocultural space poses the problem of training highly professional specialists in foreign languages who are able to adequately interact with representatives of other cultures. This contributed to the introduction of such a target-oriented category into the sphere of foreign language education as developing intercultural-communicative competence, the formation of which constitutes the process of becoming a subject of intercultural communication. Intercultural-communicative competence is traditionally interpreted as the ability of people of different nations and ages to live peacefully and without mutual discrimination in one society; ability to participate in a target culture; an identity that integrates knowledge and behavior based on the principles of pluralism and awareness of the historicity of cultural processes; a certain quality of personality, based on a adequate awareness of the world, history, readiness for action.

The Russian methodologists highlight the formation of a secondary linguistic personality as the goal of teaching foreign languages. In Kazakhstan the concept of a secondary linguistic personality as the goal of teaching foreign languages was questioned by S.S. Kunanbayeva, who, by the final qualitative result of foreign language education as a whole, determines the formation of the personality of the subject of intercultural communication, i.e., a person with a high level of formation of cognitive-knowledge and activity-communicative foundations of intercultural communication [1]. These foundations reflect the presence of a secondary cognitive consciousness of the subject and provide the ability of the person to adequately participate in the intercultural communication, flexibly reacting to the variability of communicative situations and demonstrating the strong fixation of the components of intercultural-communicative competence, communicative and behavioral culture that meets the standards of a target one.

Intercultural-communicative competence is a multicomponent category, combining several sub-competencies, which, according to the Common European Framework of References, are divided into general and communicative ones. General competences provide any activity, including communicative, and incorporate the following sub-competences: declarative knowledge, practical and intercultural skills, existential competence, cognitive abilities. To perform communicative tasks effectively, the student uses his general abilities in combination with the communicative competence, which includes linguistic, sociolinguistic and pragmatic sub-competencies [2].

While developing intercultural-communicative competence, it should be emphasized that it is the student who must have an active position in the educational activity, who must be responsible for it, consciously plan and initiate his own formation as a subject of intercultural communication. At the same time, it is necessary to take into account the need to reflect the cognitive component in the structure of personality consciousness, which reflects the student’s independent and individual strategy of learning foreign languages. This cognitive process is designed to reflect and stimulate creative search activity. It is driven by a conscious reflective-developing psychological mechanism, which gradually will develop the student’s goal-setting, self-regulating, self-evaluating cognitive-creative and communicative skills. Therefore, in this case, it is necessary to create the opportunity to transfer the teaching process into the learning process on the basis of the conscious developmental-reflective activity of the active subject of educational activity – a student. The main goal of education should not be a simple combination of knowledge, skills and abilities, but personal, social and professional competence based on them. So, much attention is paid to the independent activities of students, especially in the sphere of teaching foreign languages.

By student’s independent work on foreign languages we understand a special type of cognitive activity of a person (student), aimed at studying through the independent development of the intercultural-communicative competence, which implies the complete assimilation of language and speech material by each student in accordance with the educational task and theme on the basis of various kinds of acquired intercultural and communicative experiences (authentic / educational, mediated / direct) with the help of educational tools and techniques.

However, the ability to self-education involves self-awareness as a subject of activity, the need to master adequate methods and techniques of learning and the ability to manage own educational activities. Therefore, when organizing student’s independent work the principles of student-centered learning should be considered, involving students not only in performing tasks but also in goal-setting, planning, monitoring and evaluating the results of their own activities.

The implementation of conscious reflection means that the educational process for a student becomes an individual experience, depending, first of all, on their own efforts invested in learning a language, on the degree of personal responsibility for the learning outcomes. Thus, for the effective implementation of student’s independent work it is necessary that the student possesses the skills and abilities to work independently.

In order to identify the students' ability to work independently, as well as their readiness to carry it out, we compiled a questionnaire. There were 160 first-year students participated in the survey. Students needed to answer the following questions: 1. Do you agree that for the effective performance of independent work it is necessary to master special skills? 2. Do you feel the willingness and need to do independent work? 3. Do you know how to set the goal and tasks for independent work? 4. Do you know how to work independently? 5. Are you ready to realize self-assessment (self-evaluation)?

The survey results are reflected in the following table:

Table 1. The survey results.

Question

«Yes»

«No»

«Rather yes, than no»

«Difficult to answer»

«Rather no, than yes»

1.

 

70%

15%

---

15%

---

2.

 

40%

15%

15%

15%

15%

3.

 

10%

30%

20%

20%

20%

4.

 

20%

40%

---

10%

30%

5.

 

40%

20%

25%

15%

---

Based on the data obtained, it can be concluded that most students recognize the need for independent work. However, only 40% of respondents feel that they are ready and need to perform it, which can be explained by the inability to set goals and formulate tasks for independent work (in practice, this is all done by the teacher), non-mastery of the skills necessary for working independently. The relative majority of respondents (40%) confirm that they have the ability to independently evaluate and analyze their educational activities. The latter fact indicates the existence of parallel assessment and analysis of educational activities: students carry out this activity along with teachers. However, as practice shows, the evaluative activity of students usually remains unknown to the teacher, and the teacher’s evaluative impacts do not form an adequate understanding of students about their educational activities and the level of knowledge acquisition. Thus, the principle of activity, on which the pedagogical process is based, is implemented only one-sidedly, and does not apply to all parts of this process. The activity of students is most often encouraged in the process of assimilation. As for taking into account the determining and assessing the quality of knowledge, here this activity is not only not provided and not encouraged, but is often even suppressed in every way. Meanwhile, it is generally accepted that external causes act on the subject only through internal conditions. In the light of this provision, any impact directed at the student (and the teacher’s assessment in particular) can be effective only if the student internally agrees with the assessment and understands the criteria on which it is based. So, the questionnaire data confirmed the idea of the need for students to be included in the assessment process, about the need to form skills necessary to working independently through the assimilation by students of the requirements imposed on them. Taking into account the main principles of the student-centered and reflective-developing approaches in teaching, we came to the conclusion that using portfolio in the process of organizing independent work can provide some help in activating the role of the learner. We propose to consider the portfolio as a tool for the systematic organization of independent work of students, which in this case is regarded as a logical continuation of classroom activities, allowing the learner to work on a reproducing, semi-creative and creative levels involving self-assessment, self-control and self-study; on the basis of a student's understanding of the demands which are placed on him [3]. While working independently the student is assigned the role of an active subject of the educational activity, a teacher - a consultant, directing this activity.

Thus, it is absolutely necessary to increase the role of independent work of students while developing intercultural-communicative competence, involving students into all stages of the educational process. We believe that the inclusion of portfolio in the process of teaching foreign languages will give it a systematic character, because in the process of working with the portfolio, the teacher and the student work together to improve the level of language proficiency.

References

  1. Кунанбаева С.С. Современное иноязычное образование: методология и теории. Алматы, 2005г. - 264с.
  2. Insights from the Common European Framework [Text] / Ed. by K. Morrow. – Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.
  3. Savankova M.V., Dobayev K.D. The role of portfolio in promoting multilingual education in the republic of Kazakhstan // SOCIOINT 2018- 5th International Conference on Education, Social Sciences and Humanities, 2-4 July, 2018 in Dubai, U.A.E.

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