To the question of non-verbal means of communication in artistic texts

Танаева Нургуль Шарабидиновна – старший преподаватель кафедры Кырызского языка и литературы Кыргызско-российского факультета Ошского гуманитарно-педагогического института.

Abstract: This article discusses some theoretical questions to describe non-verbal means of communication in literary texts. The author explores some elements of non- verbal communication, considered as the artistic means by which provided imaginative, adequate perception of the image reader literary hero. On a material of the individual fragments of the historical T.Kasymbekov’s novel «Broken Sword» are some examples of non-verbal gestures, which are the actual means of communication in the Kyrgyz language.

Keywords: Non-verbal means of communication, artistic description, non-verbal communication, gestures, facial expressions, body motion, phonation, kinesics, auscultation, haptics, proxemics, chronemics.

Аннотация: В данной статье рассмотрены некоторые теоретические вопросы описания невербальных средств общения в художественных текстах. Автором исследуются отдельные элементы невербальной коммуникации, рассматриваемые в качестве художественных средств, посредством которых обеспечивается образное, адекватное восприятие читателем образа литературного героя. На материале отдельных фрагментов из исторического романа Т.Касымбекова “Сломанный меч” автором приведены некоторые примеры невербальных жестов, являющихся актуальным средством коммуникации в кыргызском языке.

Ключевые слова: Невербальные средства общения, художественное описание, невербальная коммуникация, жест, мимика, телодвижение, фонация, кинесика, аускультация, гаптика, проксемика, хронемика.

The description of non-verbal communication elements, in particular, non-verbal means in a work of art includes two sides: on the one hand, this is the perception of non-verbal means in verbal communication, and on the other, their rethinking and reflection in the text by verbal means. The description of non-verbal means in literary texts is determined by the need to implement a number of tasks of a linguo-pragmatic nature. For example, the reflection of non-verbal means serves as an artistic means that contributes to the imaginative, adequate perception by the reader of the image of a hero or his emotional state. Besides, the artistic description of the individual elements of non-verbal communication, like various movements, gestures and facial expressions plays an important role not only in revealing the individual characteristics of the artistic images of literary heroes, but also their subtle psychological states.

There are many classifications of means of non-verbal communication. Many scientists define such means as gestures, facial expressions and gaze as the main forms of non-verbal communication, which, in turn, are classified by them into more specific types. For example, gestures are divided into indicative, emphasizing and demonstrative, while facial expressions, according to most researchers, include the following types: love, surprise, fear, anger, suffering, disgust, determination, contempt. But the manifestation of human emotions is unlimited, therefore, the presentation of the non-verbal component in the literary text is stylistically very diverse. The description of non-verbal components in literary works depends on the linguo-pragmatic tasks facing the author.

According to the common opinion of many scientists (G.E. Kreidlin, V. Birkenbil.A. Mehrabian, etc.) nonverbal semiotics includes the following scientific disciplines:

Phonation - includes the totality of the sound means of the language like a pause, stress, melody, sigh, laughter, crying, coughing and other sounds that are not non-verbal in nature. Phonation means includeseparate interjections. Some scientists consider these sounds as an object of paralinguistics.

Kinesics is a set of body movements (gestures, facial expressions) used in the process of human communication (with the exception of the speech apparatus).

Auscultation is the science of auditory perception of sounds and the auditory behavior of people in the process of communication.

Haptika is the science of touch language and tactile communication.

Olfaction is the science of the language of smells, the senses conveyed by smells, and the role of smells in communication.

Proxemics is the science of the space of communication, its structure and functions.

Chronemics is the science of time in communication, its structural, semiotic and cultural functions [4, p. 23]

  1. Botobekova, besides the above-mentioned scientific areas, determines the effect of color on the communication process as an additional external factor. That is, according to the author, the color features of objects that are narrated in a particular work of art have a certain impact on the communication process [1].

Problems associated with the features of the hatching of non-verbal elements in works of art were considered in the works of many researchers, such as E.D. Polivanov, G.V. Kolshansky, V.I. Shakhovsky and others. In their opinion, the reflection of non-verbal means, as well as the description in the literary texts of extralinguistic factors, among other things, are a reflection of the material, spiritual culture of each people and its language separately.

As for the study of the above-mentioned problems in the field of Kyrgyz linguistics, they were considered, first of all, against the background of problems concerning the colloquial style, and the artistic nature of non-verbal means still remains among the little-studied questions.

But recently, new studies have appeared in Kyrgyz linguistics aimed at studying the features of the description of non-verbal means in a literary text. In particular, the works of the following authors can be attributed to similar studies in the field of Kyrgyz linguistics: Murzakmatov A.A., Place of non-verbal components in Kyrgyz etiquette// Science. Education. Equipment. (Osh, 2000). Marazykov T.S., The nature of the texts in the form of silence// (Bishkek, 2004), Tynibekova A. “Reflection of national features of gestures in the Kyrgyz language (master's work, Kyrgyz-Turkish University“ Manas ”, 2011 and The nature of verbal communication// Kyrgyz language and literature (Bishkek, 2004).

Non-verbal drugs have been studied from various aspects. In particular, A. Murzakmetov (2000) considered gestures from an ethnographic point of view, and L. Zhusupakmatov studied the meanings of drawings reflecting characteristic gestures in stone monuments (1998). Non-verbal means were analyzed in more detail in the works of A. Botobekova. In the studies of this author, non-verbal elements were studied, in particular, the units that make up non-verbal means, as well as their semantics and place in the language system.

Non-verbal means, taking into account proxematic signs, are divided by the author into the following groups:

  1. Scope of application;
  2. The peculiarity of the expression of information;
  3. Somatic symptom;
  4. Historical and semantic feature;
  5. Gender of communication participants;
  6. Age features of participants in communication [1, p. 14].

Thus, we can conclude that in the studies of this author nonverbal means were studied more thoroughly, while in the works of other Kyrgyz linguists, only separate aspects of the study of nonverbal components are considered. For example, T. Ashirbaev considered nonverbal means as a characteristic feature of the creative personality of a writer.

  1. Kasymbekov’s historical novel “Broken Sword” is also distinguished by the fact that it contains descriptions of non-verbal means by which the author was able to realize a number of creative tasks. In particular, the description of non-verbal means expresses the subtle psychological states of the heroes, their relationships, various kinds of symbolic meanings and a number of other aspects of the artistic narrative. As an illustration, we can cite the following fragments from the above-mentioned novel, in which there are description characteristic hand gestures, the meanings of which are indicated in brackets at the end of each fragment:
  • ... Өзүнүн оң жагында олтурган чоочун киши жакка колунун учун жаңсады.–Мына аксынын бийи Нүзүп бий (кырг.)

- ... He found the strength to raise his hand and pointed to a stranger who was sitting to the right of Agibay. - Here is Nusup, rich of the Aksy region ... [3, p. 49]. (pointing by hand).

  • Кудаярхан колунун учун биртке көтөрө ишарат кылып Касым миң башыны тынчтандырды (кырг.) [3, с.73].

- ... Kudayar Khan tried to calm him with a gesture, but Kasym only twitched fiercely [3, p.129] (reassurance).

  • ... Исхактын жүзүнүн эч майышпаганын, өлүмдү эсине салса да, селт этпегенин көрүп отуруп, ымга келишинен түңүлдү белем, алаканы шак-шак койду, эки күзөтчү сарбаз кирип келишти эле оң колунун учун чарчаңкы шилтеп, туткунду алып кетүүнү буйруду да, ордунан тизесин таянып араң туруп: - Көктүгүң жетет түбүңө жетет балам!...-деди да, желбегей жамынган шырма кара чапанын оңдонуп, артын карабай үжүрөдөн чыгып кетти (кырг.) [2, с.483].

– Isa looked at the captive and did not see the fear of death on his face. The old man clapped his hands twice, and two sarbases appeared. He ordered them to lead the captive away. He got up, barely straightening his numb knees, threw over his shoulder: - Your stubbornness will fall on your head, my son! And he left without looking back, correcting the chapan again slipping from his shoulders [3, p. 317]. (order).

  • ...Эшим леп тура калып, оң ныптасына байлана келген Темирдин кылычын чечип кош колдоп, Теңирбердинин алдына алпарып, тизе бүгүп сунду (кырг.) [2, с.42].

– At these words, Eshim rose and untied Temir’s sword from his belt, took it in both hands and brought Tenirberdi, respectfully kneeling before the old man [3, p.30]. (honor, respect).

  • ...О, хазирети... Сиз өзүңүздү өзүңүз билбес экенсиз, өзүңүздү өзүңүз пас кармаар экенсиз...Нүзүп андан наркысын айттырбай колунун учунун биртке көтөрүп казыйды токтотуп койду (кырг.) [2, с.94].

- ... It turns out that you don’t know yourself, you don’t know the true price for yourself, lord [3, p. 79]. Nusup stopped him with a gesture (interrupting the interlocutor).

  • ...Сен жерге кир! Эшмат! Эшмат! Сырттан дүбүрөп куралдуу евнух кирип келди. –Лапбай, ханике айым...-деди колуна бооруна алып босогого октой калды (кырг.) [2,с.112].

– So that you fail! ..Eshmat! Eshmat! An armed eunuch ran into the bedchamber, stomping loudly. -I listen, highly esteemed lady ... Holding his hand to his heart, the eunuch froze at the door [3, p.100]. (obedience).

  • ... Мына! Нүзүптүн башын кесип алдыма алып кел деп, бактияр Саид Шерали – мага улук жарлык жибериптир...

-Эмне! Бек сөөмөйүн кезеди: -Чуу көтөрбөңүз (кырг.) [2, с.123].

– Here! Sheraly-khan the descendant of the prophet sent me a decreeto remove head from the shoulder of Yusup-atalyk and bring this head to the palace ... - What ?! Bek warningly raised his index finger [3, p.101]. (warning, caution).

  • ...Сарбаздар дуулдап али калышып, сыпаалык үчүн колдорун бооруна таазим кылган болушуп калды (кырг.) [2, с.125]. - ...And they unsteadily answered him, and each bowed, respectfully folding his hands on his chest [3, p.103] (respect).

The above examples clearly illustrate that by describing non-verbal means, in our case gestures of a hero, the author was able to achieve a high level of artistry, thoroughness, as well as the persuasiveness of the individual episodes narrated by them in particular, and the novel as a whole. Thus, we can conclude that non-verbal means and their description are an integral part of the architectonics of a work of art.


  1. Botobekova A. System of non-verbal means during conversation of Kyrgyz...: dis... Candidate of Philology: 02/10/01. Bishkek., 2007..
  2. Kasymbekov T. Broken sword. F., 1990.754 p.
  3. Kasymbekov T. Broken sword. F., 1987.447 p.
  4. Kreidlin G.E. Gestures and visual communicative behavior // Transactions in cultural anthropology: memory of G. Tkachenko / Comp. V.V. Glebkin. M., 2002. p. 236-251.
  5. Kolshansky G.V. Paralinguistics. M .: Nauka, 1974.81 p.
  6. Sartbekova N., Sagynbayeva B.// Verbal concept of the concept of "woman"/ ISSN 1694-7762. Zhanylyktar-Vestie News. Scientific information journal "Science and innovative technologies" № 2.2019 5). p.229-234.
  7. Sartbekova N., Sagynbayeva B.// Kyrgyz world view in the story of K.Aitmatov "White steamer”// ISSN 0117-3375 Asia Life Sciences The Asian International Journal of Life Sciences Supplement 21(1) December 13, 2019 P.359-369.

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