Non-verbal elements in art works

Танаева Нургуль Шарабидиновна – старший преподаватель кафедры Кырызского языка и литературы Кыргызско-российского факультета Ошского гуманитарно-педагогического института.

Abstract: This article is devoted to the study of some theoretical issues in the field of textual criticism Kyrgyz and general linguistics, namely the definition of «literary text». In particular, as the non-verbal elements are analyzed symbolic gestures that give artistic text clarity, certainty, finality ant are an essential component of the language material of art text. As examples of symbolic gestures in the Kyrgyz language have been given the relevant portions of the historical novel T. Kasymbekova «Broken Sword».

Keywords: Text, non-verbal means, artistic text, character, piece of art, language facilities, grammatical nature of the text, symbolic gestures.

Аннотация: Данная статья посвящена изучению некоторых теоретических вопросов текстологии в области кыргызского и общего языкознаний, а именно определению понятия «художественный текст». В частности, в качестве невербальных элементов анализируются символические жесты, которые придают художественному тексту отчетливость, определенность, законченность и являются необходимым компонентом языкового материала художественного произведения. В качестве примеров символических жестов в кыргызском языке были переведены соответствующие фрагменты из исторического романа Т. Касымбекова «Сломанный меч».

Ключевые слова: Текст, невербальные средства, художественный текст, персонаж, художественное произведение, языковые средства, грамматическая природа текста, символические жесты.

In the field of Kyrgyz linguistics, the artistic nature of non-verbal means, including symbolic gestures, until now remains among the poorly studied issues. Moreover, the theoretical questions of the study of the concept of text in Kyrgyz linguistics should be attributed to the number of urgent problems. But, despite the lack of knowledge, the problem mentioned above was investigated in the works of a number of the following Kyrgyz linguistic scientists: Murzakmatov A.A., Place of non-verbal components in Kyrgyz etiquette // Science. Education. Equipment. (Osh, 2000) Marazykov T.S., The nature of texts in the form of silence) // The Kyrgyz language and literature). (B., 2004), Tynybekova A. “Reflection of national features of gestures in the Kyrgyz language (master's work, Kyrgyz-Turkish University“ Manas ”, 2011) and The nature of verbal communication // The Kyrgyz language and literature (B., 2004).

In order to understand what place a character occupies in a literary text, we give several definitions of the concept of “literary text”. Text according to M.M. Bakhtin is “this is the primary reality” of all humanitarian dicciplines and, in general, of the humanitarian and philological thinking. The text is that immediate activity, the activity of thought and experience, from which these disciplines and this thinking can only come. Where there is no text, there is no object for research and thinking ”[1, p. 287]. Currently, there is no single point of view on what a text is, with which class of phenomena - linguistic or speech - it should be correlated. Some researchers study the grammatical nature of the text, while others attribute the text to speech phenomena, relying primarily on its communicative capabilities. This difference in initial positions in textual studies is reflected in the definitions of the text contained in linguistic and methodological literature. Compare some of these definitions. “A text is a work of the writing process, completed, objectified in the form of a written document, literary processed in accordance with the type of this document, a work consisting of a name (heading) and a number of special units (super phrase unities), united by different types of lexical, grammatical, logical, stylistic connection, having a certain focus and pragmatic attitude ”[2 p. 18]. A text is a connection of at least two statements in which a minimal act of communication can end - the transfer of information or the exchange of thoughts between partners. This approach to the description of texts indicates that the text acts not only as a specific unit associated with a real act of communication, but also as an abstract unit of a language of the highest level. Exactly in the text the all facilities of the language become communicatively significant, communicatively conditioned, united in a certain system in which each of them most fully displays its essential features and, in addition, discovers new, text-forming functions. Consequently, the final purpose of each unit of the language is the contribution that it makes to the formation of the text — the message. Each literary text reflects the world of reality in its creative perspectives. This reflection of the world, which allows the work of art, has a holistic and focused character. The transformation of reality is associated with the idea of the work, with the tasks that the author poses for himself. An important role in reflecting reality is given to the character of a literary text. In it the author puts his ideas, worldview, mood. In a literary text, a character refers to every face endowed with appearance and inner content. Thus, the linguistic analysis of the artistic image - of the character consists in the study of linguistic means (word-building, grammatical, lexical, syntactic, stylistic), working to create a specific portrait description, behavior, internal state, desires, goals, speech of the hero as the focus of moral and philosophical problems of works and embodiment of the concept of the author’s personality, the ideological content of the work. Most often, linguists consider a character as a speaker person, i.e. a linguistic person who implements in certain communicative situations. Thus, an artistic image - a character is considered by linguists in various aspects, in terms of its external and internal characteristics: appearance, gestures, behavior, emotional states, speech, attitudes, goals, motives, etc. realized with the help of language. All of the above creates an inner world of the character. The inner world shows the image of the soul with all its searches and mistakes, hopes and disappointments.

In a literary text, the author very often pays readers' attention to the manner of performing actions, to forms of behavior, i.e. on the non-verbal component. The form of non-verbal behavior of a character in a work of art is not just a set of external details of an act, but a kind of unity, totality, integrity. The character’s non-verbal behavior gives its inner being (settings, world attitude, world outlook) distinctness, certainty, completeness and is, along with the spiritual core and forms of consciousness, the most important face of the character as a whole and is part of the world of the work. By analyzing non-verbal forms of behavior of the hero, we get the opportunity to more clearly understand the features of the author’s position and the meaning of the work as a whole, to more deeply understand the image of the hero [3, p. 10].

In order to illustrate the opinions expressed above, we give some fragments from the historical novel «Broken Sword», where descriptions of symbolic gestures take place. In particular, in the context of the aforementioned novel, symbolic gestures like “toop kyluu” (honoring, reverence), “dalysyn saluu” (turn your back, turn away), “bata kyluu” (blessing, good parting words), “kolun booruna alyp salaam beruu ”(To pay homage, hands clasped on the stomach), etc. have a number of symbolic meanings:

Мага Абдырахмандын удайчылары жабылганда жанымда баатыр башым Атакул бар эле. Ал эмне болду экен? Бир гана жолу нары карап баскан далысын көрдүм. Эмне болду экен?..” Исхактын жүрөгү шуу дей түштү. “Нары карап кеткен! Ошол жексурлук кылып кеттиби!?” – деген ой заматта кылт этти. Жүрөгү дүкүлдөп башын чайкады. Көптөн бери кайтарып жүргөн батыр башчысын чыккынчылыкка кыя албады. “Өлсө кармашып өлдү! Өлбөсө мага окшоп тирилей көрдө жатат!” – деп өзүн-өзү алаксытты. Бирок, Атакул батыр башынын үңкүйгөн далысы көзүнө кайрадан көрүнүп, көңүлүн эки ача кыла берди.... (кырг.) – So it was arranged that none of them were near me when I fell into the trap of Abdrakhman! Wait, there was Atakul from my people at that time. What happened to them? When I turned around, I saw his back. Wait, wait, it turns out, he turned his back ... Betrayed? No, Atakul is not a traitor. He either died in a fight, or was thrown alive, like me, into the grave, - Iskhak assured himself, but Atakul's shoulders, which seemed to be the experienced head of the guard many times over, hung down, stood before his eyes. And it was painful to think about it (betrayal, leaving a friend in trouble).

  • Эшим эки колун бооруна алып салам айтты:


-Ва-алейкум-а ассалам! – деп кыраат менен алик алды үй ээси (кырг.)

  • Eshim greeted, holding both hands to his heart:


-A-alaikumassalam! – the master of the yurt responded in chant [3, p.248] (respect).

  • ... Абил бөжөңдөп, бир колун бооруна алып, бир колу менен дастарконду жаңсап, алдында жикилдеп кетенчиктеп келди:

-Кана улук төрөлөр.... дастарконго....даамга....

Полковник отура бербеди. Абилди шектүү тиктеп, көңүлүнө бир деме келип, ошол аны токтотуп турган өңдүү болду (кырг.)

–Abil ran ahead and bowed at every step, at the same time shouting at the young men, rushing them: “Wait! Prepare the dostarkhan ”But the young men didn’t hesitate anyway .. [3, p. 444] (flattery, sneakiness).

  • Исхак жадырап кубанып, календердин колунан тооп кылды:

-Келиңиз. Төргө өтүңүз, азирети... Ал таң калып турган эшик агага колун шилтеди:

-Ордобузга кут келди! Чогулсун мында жакшылар, карап туруп кол беришсин азиретиге (кырг.)...

-The delighted Ishaq with a bow invited the guest to go to the place of honor:

-Come here. Where are you from?

He waved a hand to the surprised Momun:

-Momuke, a happy guest visited us. Call respectable and honorable men, let them come to say hello to the holy father [3, p. 370] (respect, reverence).

  • ....Айланбай жерге кир! – Абил бий Мадыл тооп кылганга тырмышып жаткан этегин булкуп алды (кырг.) – Get lost with your stupidity! It’s still falling into the legs! Stand straight, son of sin! [3, p.229] (despise, hate).
  • Кубан, кубана турган күнүң жан эне!..- деп, этегине тооп кылып, ошонусу менен жалпы эле эне затын бийикке тартып, бирде жамандыкта, бирде жакшылыкта берекелүү эне колуна, сүтүндөй таза эне пейлине сыйынды (кырг.)

– Rejoice, kind mother, your son Beknazar defended our honoring a bloody duel! Rejoice, today is the day of your joy, mother! - he repeated [3, p.192] (veneration, respect).

  • ... Мадали хандын алдында да ушундай бүрүшүп чөк түшүп отуруп, атасы ойноп жүргөн кызга жолоого шарият жолун таап берген казый, жазында эле дин исламдын зулпукору деп Амир Насрулланы кучак жайып тосуп алган казый, азыр Нүзүптү баскынчыдан куткаруучу кызыл от деп саймедиреп, этегине тооп кылып отурду (кырг.) – In its time he respectfully inclined to Madali Khan and when he needed to marry the former concubine of his father, he found a suitable clause in Sharia; not later than last spring he met with open arms of the emir Nasrullah and called him a fair sword of faith; now, turning to Yusup, he said that he saw in him a cleansing fire that incinerated the invaders [3, p. 77] (flattery, sneakiness).

From what has been said, it follows that, along with other non-verbal components, the description of symbolic gestures gives the art text distinctness, certainty, and completeness and is a necessary component of the language material of the work of art. Since the description of each symbolic gesture is due to the need to achieve the maximum reality of one or another artistic image.


  1. Bakhtin M.M. Language in fiction // Collected works in 7 volumes. M., 1997. p. 307.
  2. Halperin I.R. Text as an object of linguistic research. M., 1981. p. 144.
  3. Kasymbekov T. Broken sword.F., 1990.754 p.
  4. Kolshansky G.V. Linguistic and communicative aspects of verbal communication // Foreign languages at school. M., 1985.p. 81.
  5. Sartbekova N., Sagynbayeva B.// Verbal concept of the concept of "woman"/ ISSN 1694-7762. Zhanylyktar-Vestie News. Scientific information journal "Science and innovative technologies" № 2.2019 5). p.229-234.
  6. Sartbekova N., Sagynbayeva B.// Kyrgyz world view in the story of K.Aitmatov "White steamer”// ISSN 0117-3375 Asia Life Sciences The Asian International Journal of Life Sciences Supplement 21(1) December 13, 2019 P.359-369.

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